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Future Energy eNews




May 2016 TOC






We are happy to see Spring in the Nation's Capital and a Spring-like upsurge in renewable energy growth throughout the country. Wind energy for example, now at 70 GW total US capacity, has reported dramatic steady growth with Iowa, Kansas, and S. Dakota generating over 20% of their electricity by wind As IRI continues to expand its role in pioneering future energy to provide a portfolio of choices for everyone in the coming years, as global warming becomes more critical, your support is vital. Please remember to use shopping at Amazon, for example, and designate "Integrity Research Institute" as the recipient of the percent donation that Amazon pays for when you buy something! Another way you can help provide renewable energy to those who really need it is to visit and give a solar-powered LED lantern to Nepal students. The EMRG model provides up to 8 hours of light after charged in sunlight during the day and only cost $9 each (they also make great presents for family and friends)!


This month our first story is perhaps the most important of the year since it represents a true breakthrough in propulsion. While NASA is engaged in testing the EmDrive, various reports have already been published including the most comprehensive "Testing Quantised Inertia on the EmDrive" that compares several experiments with the best McColloch theory and finds remarkable agreement with most of them.


Our Story #2 is quite exciting for IRI since it announces the release of a new anthology that sets a high standard of excellence for Nikola Tesla and his wireless transmission of power. With almost 20 contributors and almost 500 pages, the book will no doubt become a notable reference volume for years to come. The most surprising content is the 2016 journal paper providing a detailed description of the Zenneck (a contemporary of Tesla) surface transmission wave theory and experiment by Dr. James Corum and Ken Corum. This contribution by the Corums puts the public on notice that soon we will have another choice of utility for receiving electrical power that will not be interrupted by weather disasters, since they are consulting for a commercial enterprise dedicated to the endeavor.


Story #3 celebrates the latest milestone in the highest efficiency for solar power yet achieved: 35%. As the University of South Wales reports, it approaches the theoretical limit for sunlight to electricity conversion and was accomplished without concentrators which usually boost power concentration.


Story #4 continues our IRI investigation of the numerous violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Now theory and experiment has shown that nanoparticles can be positioned to lose heat to the environment, even if they are cooler than the surrounding region, instead of absorbing energy as dictated by the Second Law. While this may seem like a rare exception to the well-known entropy rule, the prestigious Springer Publishers has a 350-page 2005 textbook on the subject, Challenges to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, by Capek and Sheehan, in the Fundamental Theories of Physics  series:

Obviously there is more to the phenomenon which allows numerous "exceptions" to entropy to take place where energy is involved.


Story #5 is an intriguing mechanical feat of engineering that converts motion into electricity, such as when harvesting the oscillating motion of ships or any other moving system. The full story is at where a short video explains the invention by WITT Energy company , which includes a 200-watt marine model in production. The company also achieved record breaking crowd funding for the project.


Don't forget to register for our exceptional DUAL conference in July where two parallel sessions (COFE8 and ExtraOrdinary Technology) are available for one low price! The best conference available today on cutting edge energy developments.




Thomas Valone,  Editor









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1) EM Drive: Breakthrough in Propulsion 



 By Jennifer Harrison, Senior Officer, Gadgette May 2016


Ed. Note: McCulloch explains the group of consistent EmDrive experiments, designed by a rocket scientist, along with flyby, Pioneer, and galactic spin anomalies below, withquantized inertia from the zero point field as an asymmetric Casimir force and Unruh radiation that satisfies conservation of momentum, including elimination of "dark matter" on the galactic scale. Very hard to dismiss the above experimental and theoretical matchup, along with all of the articles below, as just theory.  The flyby anomalies finally have an explanation (#2, #9, #10) for example. MIT (#2) states: "McCulloch's theory could help to change that, although it is hardly a mainstream idea. It makes two challenging assumptions. The first is that photons have inertial mass. The second is that the speed of light must change within the cavity. That won't be easy for many theorists to stomach." The best intro to the latest news is from May 7, 2016 Article  with several good, short videos!   - TV



In 2001, a researcher named Roger Shawyer created something he called the EmDrive. He described it as a new space propulsion technology that can create thrust without propellant. It uses microwaves and electricity and he claimed it could theoretically push spacecraft through space without using any rocket fuel. If it really works, it will revolutionise space travel. We could get to Mars in 10 weeks without propellant.

Although Shawyer created a working model, the EmDrive wasn't accepted by the scientific community. For it to work the way Shawyer describes it, the EmDrive must defy our current understanding of physics. He wasn't the first person to make physics-defying claims so it's no surprise that physicists didn't take him seriously. Shawyer and his creation probably would have faded into obscurity if it wasn't for the fact that 4 independent labs, including NASA's Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory, have recreated the drive and reported that it does create thrust. They just can't explain why.

Bouncing microwaves
The EmDrive is an electromagnet propulsion device, though it's also known as a radio frequency resonant cavity thruster. A magnetron creates microwaves, which are bounced around inside an enclosed cavity that's tapered to be a big cone. It's designed so that thrust will be generated in the direction of the narrow end of the cone.


Energy is required in the form of electricity to run the magnetron but that's all. There's no fuel added and nothing is kicked out of one end to make the drive move. It seems to generate thrust all by itself without propellants. Thrusters that use electromagnetic propulsion isn't new and there have been experiments on ion thrusters since the 1960s. These earlier concepts are known as "low-propellant" as they can generate force with very little propellant but that doesn't upset any physicists. The EmDrive literally claims to do the impossible.

The most likely explanation for the thrust created by the EmDrive is that there's a measuring mistake. The thrust is very tiny so perhaps scientists are seeing something that's not really there. But more and more labs are recreating the experiments and making their measurements more precise. NASA has even got the EmDrive working in a vacuum to show that the thrust has nothing to do with air pressure. Over 8 experiments in 4 labs somehow keep finding that the EmDrive can generate thrust without any propellent. According to NASA:


"Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon."

It can't be overstated how controversial the EmDrive is. It makes no sense in light of physics. Think back to your lessons on Newton's laws. The reason the scientific community isn't willing to accept that the EmDrive really works is that it defies the conservation of momentum.

Spacecraft can't move forward unless propellant is fired backwards or the spacecraft is pushed by something else. Most of our ships have used rocket fuel to get them going, and futuristic solar sails will reflect particles from the solar winds. You don't just get movement from nowhere... unless it's the EmDrive. When New Scientist published an article about the drive and said it was plausible, there was a backlash from physicists claiming sensationalism. Physicist Paul Friedlander wrote:

"As I read it, I, like the thousands of other physicists who will have read it, immediately realised that this was impossible as described. Physicists are trained to use certain fundamental principles to analyse a problem and this claim clearly flouted one of them... The Shawyer drive is as impossible as perpetual motion. Relativistic conservation of momentum has been understood for a century and dictates that if nothing emerges from Shawyer's device then its centre of mass will not accelerate."


The consensus is clear: Shawyer's theory and experiment are flights of fancy and should be ignored. However, the independent labs are all claiming that the drive is doing something. Over time, the results are starting to look less and less like errors and more like an actual phenomenon that needs to be explained. It's very plausible that thrust really is being created but all the researchers have overlooked some force that could explain it without violating the conservation of momentum.

But what if? If we have a drive that is genuinely creating thrust with no propellant, how could that be happening?

What about physics?

A number of hypotheses have emerged that assume there really is thrust being created without an obvious propellant. Many of these hypotheses are as controversial as the EmDrive itself. For example, physicists predict there are some particles that can simply pop into existence now and then throughout the universe. It could be that particles appearing inside the drive are being pushed out the back and nobody is realising. Like most of the hypotheses, they aren't exactly easy to prove and sound far-fetched.


News about the EmDrive has been buzzing again recently because a paper has been published with another controversial hypothesis but it's one of the most interesting so far. The author, Dr Mike McCulloch of Plymouth University, claims that the drive's thrust might mean we need a new theory of inertia and he has suggestions. His idea is controversial, but it's also testable. That's what makes it worth considering. Also, if true, it could explain the thrust without violating the conservation of momentum.

The hypothesis (MiHsC) seems counter-intuitive at first glance because it suggests that momentum increases as the thruster moves, but his model is a surprisingly good fit for the results and some other observations already made. His model involves inertia, which is about how massive objects resist being moved or accelerated to an extent. Imagine a planet hurtling through space at high speeds. It's really difficult to stop it or even slow it down considerably or in other words it has a lot of inertia. Physicists have appreciated inertia for centuries but it isn't clear why intertia actually exists. What causes it to happen?

Unruh radiation
McCulloch proposes that inertia can be explained by the Unruh radiation predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Basically, the faster you move, the warmer things get for you. McCulloch's idea is that inertia is just Unruh waves putting pressure on accelerating objects.


We don't notice this phenomenon at the everyday speeds we think of as normal, but at tiny accelerations the wavelengths of Unruh radiation are so long that they don't even fit within the observable universe. The result? At low accelerations, inertia is forced to use only whole-level Unruh wavelength values.


The jumping from one whole wavelength value to another during low acceleration can explain an intriguing mystery: the Flyby Anomaly. When spacecraft accelerate around planets, they end up faster than we expect and nobody can figure out where they get the extra boost from. Bizarrely, the speed of spacecraft appears to increase in small "jumps", which fits McCulloch's model well. He thinks the unaccountable boost comes from radiation pressure from Unruh waves. The model has also been proposed to explain the rotation of galaxies without the need for dark matter.

McCulloch believes the Unruh radiation could also explain why the EmDrive works. The coned shape of the drive's enclosed cavity means that Unruh waves are different sizes at the different ends of the cavity. If his ideas about inertia being caused by Unruh radiation are true, we should expect photons bouncing around inside to have their inertia changed, with stronger radiation pressure in one direction than the other. Because momentum is always conserved, which is what physicists have been saying all along, thrust is generated.

McCulloch's model explains some anomalies and fits some experimental data but why should we care? Well, for starters it's entirely testable. There are a number of ways to test his hypothesis and the most obvious is simply to redesign the EmDrive. McCulloch has suggested making the length of the EmDrive's cavity the same as the diameter of the smaller end. If he's right, Unruh radiation will fit better at the small instead instead and the thrust will be reversed. It's a fairly straightforward test and hopefully we'll know what happens soon.

If it works?
The obvious application of the EmDrive if it really works is in space travel, which would become fast and efficient. A journey from Earth to Mars could take just a few months and use no fuel. If the drive really does continue to accelerate, we could send spacecraft to other stars faster than we ever thought possible. Thrust with no propellant could even lead to transport technologies used on Earth. Think of all those flying cars in sci-fi films.


The problem is still the explanation. If you were in charge of a space organisation, would you spend millions to build and launch spacecraft with EmDrives if you don't even know exactly how they work? There's a very good chance that the drives don't work and that people are mistaken. Indeed, that's the consensus. If this will change when McCulloch's hypothesis is tested remains to be seen but before we can travel to other stars without using fuel, we'll need to know what the hell we're actually doing.

Perhaps the EmDrive is doing nothing special. Or perhaps it's breaking physics and we need to rewrite the textbooks. Or perhaps momentum is conserved still but there's a form of radiation nobody considered that could explain the thrust and other anomalies associated with inertia. With so many labs interested in the drive, we'll soon have an answer. Step one: let's be really sure about these test results.

Physicists rightly still think the EmDrive is a load of nonsense, and it probably is. But wouldn't it be nice to be wrong?


 Quantized Inertia




2) New Tesla Book: Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged



Press  Release: 
Integrity Research Institute, May 20, 2016  


Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged, edited by Thomas Valone, is a unique anthology of handpicked Tesla articles, arranged historically, which presents overwhelming and convincing evidence for the reality of Tesla's high efficiency, low cost wireless power transmission. 


Following in the footsteps of the editor's first book in the series, Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature, Dr. Tom Valone's book chronologically traces the original intention that Nikola Tesla had for his wireless electricity and how he updated and expanded upon it later on, with reprints of his key articles, to the recent genius engineers and physicists who are now finally bringing this last and most elusive, highly advanced Tesla technology into reality. 


The Corum article (along with the Peterson article) on the Zenneck wave transmission experiments culminates the viewpoints of all of the book's contributors. Its purposeful placement as the last chapter of the book, is because this exclusive article publication is a major scientific breakthrough, as testified by the book's endorsement from Brigadier General Michael Miller, and foretells the understandable, visionary road to the corporate formation of wireless power utilities.


Furthermore, this is the first and only book in the world which explains how an electromagnetic wave traveling across the electrically conductive surface of the earth, was predicted by Tesla and Zenneck (two pictures in the book show them together on pages 74 and 381) and why it is the essential missing link of any Tesla wireless transmission theory. Many of the contributors also nicely explain the "surface wave phenomenon" as well as "resonant earth-ionosphere" modes of electrical transmission without wires that compliments the surface wave theory and experiment.


 Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged therefore is a treasure compared to any other Tesla reference book currently in print, since it is jam-packed with personal stories of Tesla,  along with great illustrated slideshows adapted for the book format, the "secret" history of Tesla's wireless, the real Tesla electric car, high Q resonant power transfer examples being used today by Qualcomm, "Tesla unplugged" explained in an easy-to understand presentation by a Brookhaven National Lab scientist, wireless electricity article based on scalar waves, even including a couple amazing rigorous equation articles with wireless solutions for the tech audience, a unique and evocative  Foreword by Nikola Tesla's last living direct descendant, all presented in a 457-page paperback book, suitable as a college or high school reader, or simply as an eye-opening, optimistic window onto the electrical genius regarded as the "Master of Lightning," with a priceless collection of nineteen (19) contributors not available anywhere else.



Related Stories 





3) New World Record Set for Converting Sunlight Into Electricity 


By Eric Mack  May 17, 2016, Gizmag 


An Australian team has set a new record for squeezing as much electricity as possible out of direct, unfocused sunlight via a new solar cell configuration. Engineers at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) achieved 34.5 percent sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency, a new mark that also comes closer than ever to the theoretical limits of such a system.



UNSW's Dr. Mark Keevers and Professor Martin Green set the record with a 28 centimeter-square (4.3 sq in), four-junction mini-module embedded in a prism. This new configuration allows the sun's rays to be split into four bands so that a higher amount of energy can be extracted from each beam.


The same team reached a higher level of efficiency  a few years back using mirrored concentrators that were able to convert 40 percent of incoming sunlight to electricity. However, this new record is the highest level achieved without the use of concentrators.


"What's remarkable is that this level of efficiency had not been expected for many years," said Green, citing a German study that set a goal of 35 percent efficiency to be reached by 2050.


The team does not expect that its record-breaking cell configuration will find its way on to home or office rooftops anytime soon, as they are more costly to manufacture. The group is working to reduce the complexity to make them cheaper to produce and sees a future for them on solar towers that make use of concentrating mirrors.


Meanwhile, efficiency gains are also being made in the development of organic solar cells that are cheaper and more flexible. There's still a long way to go though, as most recent record for photovoltaics set in February was 13.2 percent efficiency.


Source: University of New South Wales




4) Nanoparticles Found to Violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics 


By  Heidi Hoopes, Gizmag 2016 


It may be a little late for April Fool's, but some skepticism is nonetheless warranted when reading that researchers have shown nanoparticles to disobey a fundamental law of physics which dictates the flow of entropy and heat in, it was believed, any situation. Specifically, researchers from three universities theoretically proposed then demonstrated that a nanoparticle in a state of thermal non-equilibrium does not always behave as larger particles might under the same conditions, with implications for various fields of research.


The second law of thermodynamics is the one that makes perpetual motion machines impossible. It states that the entropy - the measure for the disorder of a system - of any isolated system cannot decrease spontaneously, with the system evolving towards the state of maximum entropy (favoring disorder). The team has shown that a nanoparticle trapped with laser light temporarily violates this law. This seeming violation of universal law is transient, something that the researchers first derived as a mathematical model of fluctuations expected at the nanoscale.


To test their theorem, scientists at the University of Vienna, the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich trapped a nanosized silica sphere with a radius of less than 75 nm in a laser "trap." Not only was the particle held in place, but could be precisely measured in three different directions, important when your particle is so small that 10,000 of them could line the width of a pinhead.


The nano-sphere was cooled lower than the temperature of the surrounding gas, creating a state of nonequilibrium. At a macro scale, a state of thermal non-equilibrium is what dictates that a snowman melts in a suddenly warming environment by absorbing heat from its surroundings, rather than growing more frozen by losing heat. A blindingly obvious example, yet at the nanoscale, such real-life observations are not without exception.


Indeed, by measuring the oscillations in the particle, the researchers were able to determine that the nanoparticle would, at times, effectively release heat to its warming surroundings rather than absorb heat.


Nanoparticles could range from natural parts within cells to man-made devices being developed in medicine and electronics. All of these particles experience random conditions due to their tiny scale. Both this experimental setup and the fluctuation theorem represent new ways to assess how nanoscale technology might fare when exposed to random environmental buffetings. Further studies are planned to further explore this phenomenon.


The research was originally published in Nature Nanotechnology 




5) Motion into Electricity 


By Mark Dansie, Green Revolution  April 2016


One of the largest potential sources of renewable energy is from capturing motion of the ocean and attaching a harvester to other moving objects. When I first reviewed this technology my immediate thoughts were too many moving parts. However a closer look reveals a really innovative feat of engineering that has applications for watts to megawatt devices. It may also finally allow for the economic viability of harvesting the power or the ocean from yachts to power stations.



Witt Technology have built prototypes to demonstrate how  technology can generate electricity from motion. They have used these prototypes to show  potential customers, engineering partners, agents, technology experts and global businesses how good the WITT is.  The WITT is able to a generate renewable power where it is needed and are engaging with several industry partners to bring their technology to mark

The WITT converts motion into electricity

Contained within a sealed unit, WITTs utilize a 3D pendulum which drives the transmission system, converting all motion, in any combination of the six degrees of freedom, into a single unidirectional rotation of a flywheel, to produce electricity! WITT's harvest chaotic motion, fast, slow or erratic, turning into useable power. No other energy harvesting system can capture this full spectrum-thus the WITT absorbs up to 100% more energy compared to other devices!

No other device captures energy from all 6 degrees of motion



Whatever Input to Torsion Transfer is a uniquely developed technology.

  1. 1 Rotation around 1st axis
  2. 2 Rotation around 2nd axis
  3. 3 Rotation around 3rd axis
  1. 4 Back and forth
  2. 5 Side to side
  3. 6 Up and down

Capturing Wave Power


No existing technology provides a consensus choice. A sealed WITT is resistant to harsh sea environment, a 'fit & forget' solution. WITT will harvest power from surge & pitch, sway & roll, with NO SHOCK LOAD. This offers twice the capacity for wave power conversion than other devices. WL working with Mojo Maritime, DNV GL, OREC, Gibbs Gears, & Universities of Bristol, Plymouth & Southampton in feasibility re generating offshore grid scale power.








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