Future Energy eNews   IntegrityResearchInstitute.org      April 26, 2008       

1) Inside the Black Budget - New book tells a lot about where the billions have gone.
2) Wind Power that Floats - Big turbines offshore work at 3.5 Megawatts each
3) Top 10 Tech Cars - The plug-in hybrid is back and high mileage too
4) Heat to Electricity Generator Invented - Thermoelectric converter can also use solar energy
5) Dr. Tom Valone on Coast to Coast AM Radio Monday Night  - Zero point energy and future energy topics.
6) Convert Car to Run on Water - Conversion kit creates a water-burning hybrid and less pollution
7) Energy on Tap When You Go With the Flow - Using river currents and vortices for energy

1) Inside the Black Budget

Skulls. Black cats. A naked woman riding a killer whale. Grim reapers. Snakes. Swords. Occult symbols. A wizard with a staff that shoots lightning bolts. Moons. Stars. A dragon holding the Earth in its claws.

No, this is not the fantasy world of a 12-year-old boy.

It is, according to a new book, part of the hidden reality behind the Pentagon’s classified, or “black,” budget that delivers billions of dollars to stealthy armies of high-tech warriors. The book offers a glimpse of this dark world through a revealing lens — patches — the kind worn on military uniforms.

“It’s a fresh approach to secret government,” Steven Aftergood, a security expert at the Federation of American Scientists in Washington, said in an interview. “It shows that these secret programs have their own culture, vocabulary and even sense of humor.”

One patch shows a space alien with huge eyes holding a stealth bomber near its mouth. “To Serve Man” reads the text above, a reference to a classic “Twilight Zone” episode in which man is the entree, not the customer. “Gustatus Similis Pullus” reads the caption below, dog Latin for “Tastes Like Chicken.”

Military officials and experts said the patches are real if often unofficial efforts at building team spirit.

The classified budget of the Defense Department, concealed from the public in all but outline, has nearly doubled in the Bush years, to $32 billion. That is more than the combined budgets of the Food and Drug Administration, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Those billions have expanded a secret world of advanced science and technology in which military units and federal contractors push back the frontiers of warfare. In the past, such handiwork has produced some of the most advanced jets, weapons and spy satellites, as well as notorious boondoggles.

Budget documents tell little. This year, for instance, the Pentagon says Program Element 0603891c is receiving $196 million but will disclose nothing about what the project does. Private analysts say it apparently aims at developing space weapons.

Trevor Paglen, an artist and photographer finishing his Ph.D. in geography at the University of California, Berkeley, has managed to document some of this hidden world. The 75 patches he has assembled reveal a bizarre mix of high and low culture where Latin and Greek mottos frame images of spooky demons and sexy warriors, of dragons dropping bombs and skunks firing laser beams.

“Oderint Dum Metuant,” reads a patch for an Air Force program that mines spy satellite images for battlefield intelligence, according to Mr. Paglen, who identifies the saying as from Caligula, the first-century Roman emperor famed for his depravity. It translates “Let them hate so long as they fear.”

Wizards appear on several patches. The one hurling lightning bolts comes from a secret Air Force base at Groom Lake, northwest of Las Vegas in a secluded valley. Mr. Paglen identifies its five clustered stars and one separate star as a veiled reference to Area 51, where the government tests advanced aircraft and, U.F.O. buffs say, captured alien spaceships.

The book offers not only clues into the nature of the secret programs, but also a glimpse of zealous male bonding among the presumed elite of the military-industrial complex. The patches often feel like fraternity pranks gone ballistic.

The book’s title? “I Could Tell You but Then You Would Have to Be Destroyed by Me,” published by Melville House. Mr. Paglen says the title is the Latin translation of a patch designed for the Navy Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 4, at Point Mugu, Calif. Its mission, he says, is to test strike aircraft, conventional weapons and electronic warfare equipment and to develop tactics to use the high-tech armaments in war.

“The military has patches for almost everything it does,” Mr. Paglen writes in the introduction. “Including, curiously, for programs, units and activities that are officially secret.”

He said contractors in some cases made the patches to build esprit de corps. Other times, he added, military units produced them informally, in contrast to official patches.

Mr. Paglen said he found them by touring bases, noting what personnel wore, joining alumni associations, interviewing active and former team members, talking to base historians and filing requests under the Freedom of Information Act.

A spokesman for the Pentagon, Cmdr. Bob Mehal, said it would be imprudent to comment on “which patches do or do not represent classified units.” In an e-mail message, Commander Mehal added, “It would be supposition to suggest ‘anyone’ is uncomfortable with this book.”

Each year, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, a private group in Washington, publishes an update on the Pentagon’s classified budget. It says the money began to soar after the two events of Mr. Bush’s coming into office and terrorists’ 9/11 attacks.

What sparked his interest, Mr. Paglen recalled, were Vice President Dick Cheney’s remarks as the Pentagon and World Trade Center smoldered. On “Meet the Press,” he said the nation would engage its “dark side” to find the attackers and justice. “We’ve got to spend time in the shadows,” Mr. Cheney said. “It’s going to be vital for us to use any means at our disposal, basically, to achieve our objective.”

In an interview, Mr. Paglen said that remark revived memories of his childhood when his military family traveled the globe to bases often involved in secret missions. “I’d go out drinking with Special Forces guys,” he recalled. “I was 15, and they were 20, and they could never say where they where coming from or what they were doing. You were just around the stuff.”

Intrigued by Mr. Cheney’s remarks as well as his own recollections, Mr. Paglen set off to map the secret world and document its expansion. He traveled widely across the Southwest, where the military keeps many secret bases. His labors, he said, resulted in his Ph.D. thesis as well as a book, “Blank Spots on a Map,” that Dutton plans to publish next year.

The research also led to another book, “Torture Taxi,” that Melville House published in 2006. It described how spies kidnapped and detained suspected terrorists around the globe.

“Black World,” a 2006 display of his photographs at Bellwether, a gallery in Chelsea, showed “anonymous-looking buildings in parched landscapes shot through a shimmering heat haze,” Holland Cotter wrote in The New York Times, adding that the images “seem to emit a buzz of mystery as they turn military surveillance inside out: here the surveillant is surveilled.”

In this research, Mr. Paglen became fascinated by the patches and started collecting them and displaying them at talks and shows. He said a breakthrough occurred around 2004, when he visited Peter Merlin, an “aerospace archaeologist” who works in the Mojave Desert not far from a sprawling military base. Mr. Merlin argued that the lightning bolts, stars and other symbols could be substantive clues about unit numbers and operating locations, as well as the purpose of hidden programs.

“These symbols,” Mr. Paglen wrote, “were a language. If you could begin to learn its grammar, you could get a glimpse into the secret world itself.”

His book explores this idea and seeks to decode the symbols. Many patches show the Greek letter sigma, which Mr. Paglen identifies as a technical term for how well an object reflects radar waves, a crucial parameter in developing stealthy jets.

A patch from a Groom Lake unit shows the letter sigma with the “buster” slash running through it, as in the movie “Ghost Busters.” “Huge Deposit — No Return” reads its caption. Huge Deposit, Mr. Paglen writes, “indicates the bomb load deposited by the bomber on its target, while ‘No Return’ refers to the absence of a radar return, meaning the aircraft was undetectable to radar.”

In an interview, Mr. Paglen said his favorite patch was the dragon holding the Earth in its claws, its wings made of American flags and its mouth wide open, baring its fangs. He said it came from the National Reconnaissance Office, which oversees developing spy satellites. “There’s something both belligerent and weirdly self-critical about it,” he remarked. “It’s representing the U.S. as a dragon with the whole world in its clutches.”

The field is expanding. Dwayne A. Day and Roger Guillemette, military historians, wrote an article published this year in The Space Review (www.thespacereview.com/article/1033/1) on patches from secret space programs. “It’s neat stuff,” Dr. Day said in an interview. “They’re not really giving away secrets. But the patches do go farther than the organizations want to go officially.”

Mr. Paglen plans to keep mining the patches and the field of clandestine military activity. “It’s kind of remarkable,” he said. “This stuff is a huge industry, I mean a huge industry. And it’s remarkable that you can develop these projects on an industrial scale, and we don’t know what they are. It’s an astounding feat of social engineering.”

Photos of Emblems: Ghost Squadron. For search and rescue; National Reconnaissance Office. Dragon is code for infrared imaging on advanced KH-11 satellites; Desert Prowler. May represent Groom Lake, Nev., a k a Area 51; Special Projects Office. Oversaw F-117A stealth fighter support; 4451st Test Squadron. Stealth fighters; 413th Flight Test Squadron. Possibly referring to simulated or real electronic threats against aircraft.
See ten of these black project emblem patches at http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2008/03/31/science/0401-PATCH_index.html

2) Wind Power That Floats

Peter Fairley, Technology Review,   Wednesday, April 02, 2008 http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/20500/?nlid=978&a=f

Advances in floating platforms could take wind farms far from coasts, reducing costs and skirting controversy.

Offshore wind-farm developers would love to build in deep water more than 32 kilometers from shore, where stronger and steadier winds prevail and complaints about marred scenery are less likely. But building foundations to support wind turbines in water deeper than 20 meters is prohibitively expensive. Now, technology developers are stepping up work in floating turbines to make such farms feasible.

Several companies are on their way to demonstrating systems by borrowing heavily from oil and gas offshore platform technology. In December, the Dutch floating-turbine developer Blue H Technologies http://www.bluehgroup.com/ launched a test platform off Italy's southern coast; last month, the company announced its plans to install an additional test turbine off the coast of Massachusetts, and possibly begin constructing a full wind farm off the Italian coast, next year. Close behind is SWAY, based in Bergen, Norway, which raised $29 million last fall and plans to field a prototype of its floating wind turbine in 2010.

If these efforts succeed, they could open up a resource of immense scale. For example, according to a 2006 analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy, General Electric, and the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, offshore wind resources on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts exceed the current electricity generation of the entire U.S. power industry.

The success of the floating turbine could hold the key to exploiting that resource. Wind farms such as those installed in Denmark, Germany, and other European waters and proposed for Nantucket Sound, in Massachusetts, suffer from a limited supply of marine construction equipment such as pile drivers and cranes. Emerging Energy Research, a consultancy based in Cambridge, MA, said last week that the global market for offshore wind energy could reach 40,000 megawatts by 2020--enough to power more than 30 million U.S. homes, and more than twice the scale of last year's wind installations worldwide--but only with greatly expanded marine construction capacity. Building even 2,000 megawatts of offshore wind over the next five years will require a significant increase in the marine supply chain, according to Keith Hays, the consultancy's research director.

Floating turbines can be assembled onshore and towed into position, making an end run around the offshore construction bottleneck. The platform that Blue H towed out of Brindisi Harbor in Puglia, Italy, this winter is called a tension-leg platform, a conventional offshore oil and gas platform design that floats below the surface, held rigidly in place by chains running to steel or concrete anchors on the seabed. Installed on top is an 80-kilowatt wind turbine fitted out with sensors to record the wave and wind forces experienced 10 kilometers offshore. Much bigger floating versions--2.5-megawatt and 3.5-megawatt turbines of the scale used in today's offshore wind farms--are under construction by Blue H and could be installed as soon as this fall.

What's unusual about Blue H's design is the turbine's two-bladed rotor--a design that lost out to the three-blade design in the 1990s as the wind-turbine industry scaled up. Martin Jakubowski, Blue H cofounder and chief technology officer, says that the noise and jarringly high rotation speeds that made two-bladers a loser on land are either irrelevant or a plus offshore. Faster rotation, meanwhile, offers two benefits. Jakubowski says that the 30-to-35-revolutions-per-minute frequency, twice that of a three-bladed turbine, is less susceptible to interference from the back-and-forth swing of the platform under wave action.

Faster rotation also means less torque, meaning that the entire structure can be built lighter. (See "Wind Power for Pennies.") The rotor, gearbox, and generator of Blue H's 2.5-megawatt turbine will weigh 97 tons--53 tons lighter than the lightest machine of the same power output on the market. "This is a big advantage," says Jakubowski. "For us, weight on top is something we have to push up." The turbine and platform are correspondingly cheaper to build, he says. The net result, says Jakubowski, should be a highly competitive energy source. He estimates that Blue H's wind farms will deliver wind energy for seven to eight cents per kilowatt-hour, roughly matching the current cost of natural gas-fired generation and conventional onshore wind energy.

And it will be out of sight and thus, the company hopes, out of mind for competing local interests such as tourism. The site off Cape Cod where Blue H intends to install a test platform next summer for its first U.S. wind farm will be 23 miles off the coast.

Blue H's Norwegian competitor SWAY is using a different combination of offshore platform technology and turbine design. SWAY's platform is, in essence, a spar buoy that can rise and fall gently with wave action, thus requiring less anchoring than the tension-leg platform. The buoy, a column nearly 200 meters tall, will be held in place by a 2,400-ton gravel ballast on the seabed. Its turbine is three-bladed, but in contrast to conventional onshore turbines, it is allowed to face downwind rather than held upwind to better accommodate heeling of the tower.

Paul Sclavounos, a mechanical engineer and a specialist in naval architecture at MIT, whose lab is designing both kinds of structures for offshore turbines, says that both companies have chosen viable flotation methods, although he believes that the spar approach taken by SWAY will be better adapted to rougher waters. He says that Blue H's platform may work off the Italian coast, but anchoring it to handle the 30-to-40-meter waves that New England's storms can whip up may not be economical. "The cost that really drives this business is primarily the foundation," says Sclavounos.

Where he questions both firms is in their decision to redesign the wind turbines. Sclavounos says that his group is designing both spars and platforms to carry conventional five-megawatt turbines designed for onshore or shallow-water offshore applications. "You don't want to redesign the turbines for offshore deployment because that's going to be very expensive, and it's probably not necessary early on," he says.

In Sclavounos view, the economics of the power industry are already approaching a tipping point that will drive rapid adoption of floating turbines. "The technology is essentially proven," he says. "We know we can design [platforms] and spars that are not going to move in big storms. What is going to lead to this industry taking off will be the economics. When carbon-emissions trading markets start maturing, you're going to see this industry take off, even without state subsidies. We're not far from it."

3) Top Ten Tech Cars

John Voelcker, IEEE Spectrum, April 8, 2008 http://spectrum.ieee.org/apr08/6078

When a sexy silver Ferrari F430 Spider has “Bio Fuel” emblazoned on the doors in bright green, you know the world has changed. Yet that was the sight at a major auto show early this year. As one industry commentator put it, “Green is the new black.”

Consider that Europe is debating not whether to cut carbon emissions from vehicles but simply when to do it and by how much. The average new car on Europe's roads now emits roughly 160 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer; the European Commission proposed last year to lower that to 130 g/km by 2012. But Europe's carmakers seem likely to have missed a voluntary 2008 target of 140 g/km.

This issue has pitted French and Italian carmakerswho specialize in small, fuel-efficient carsagainst German manufacturers, who could see many of their luxury and sports-car products become problematic. Now a staggered set of weight-based limits may be instituted, and the deadline may be pushed all the way to 2015.

Carbon emissions are becoming a standard automotive benchmark in Europe and parts of Asia, but North American car buyers remain almost entirely unaware of them. To reflect the global discussion, IEEE Spectrum has included whatever numbers on vehicle CO2 emissions we could obtain from the manufacturers.

Many of this year's innovations center on combustion-engine technologyFord's EcoBoost turbocharged gasoline direct-injection engines, Mazda's tiny Miller-cycle engine, BMW's centrally mounted twin turbochargers. Then there's the diesel engine, which appears set for a revival following the fuel-economy regulations enacted late last year in the United States. Both European and Japanese carmakers are preparing to launch diesels in North America over the next two to five years. Even though the engine requires elaborate and costly emissions controlslike the Mercedes-Benz Bluetec systemto trap the great number of fine particulates diesels emit, their lower fuel usage and CO2 emissions are unquestioned.

Will U.S. buyers go for diesels? No one knows. It may be the industry's biggest open question.

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is another puzzle. General Motors is expressing quiet confidence that lithium-ion batteries will clear the various hurdles needed for a late-2010 launch of its Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric car, projected to have a 64-km range on electric power alone. A plug-in version of GM's Saturn Vue Two-Mode Hybrid sport utility is due on roughly the same schedule, with a 16-km range. Toyota, meanwhile, abruptly changed its tune on plug-ins, launching a test fleet of Priuses converted to plug-in operation. It's a conversion that private customers have been ordering, one car at a time, at small garages across the United States and in other countries.

The trend extends even to China, where horrific air pollution and increasing dependence on imported oil threaten to muffle the country's economic boom. BYD Co., a Chinese battery company that claims to supply two-thirds of the world's nickel-cadmium batteries and 30 percent of its lithium-ion mobile-phone batteries, started making cars in 2002. In January it demonstrated a plug-in hybrid sedan with a claimed electric range of 96 km, which the company said would be offered for sale in small numbersin China onlyby the end of this year. That said, fewer than 200 plug-in hybrid cars are on the world's roads.

Finally, the industry is doing something about the weight of its products. Ford's EcoBoost V6 engine, for example, provides the power and torque of a much larger V8 with better fuel economy, lower emissions, and less weight. Even so, a fully accessorized EcoBoost weighs about half as much as an entire Tata Nano, from India, which at US $2500 is cheaper than the options packages for many cars. That low price, and planned production in the millions, make the Nano easily the most important launch of the year. It is feared by the global auto industry and eagerly awaited by millions of Indian families, who now often travel in groups of four or five on a single scooter.

Ferrari performance at one-third the price

In some ways, it's the antithesis of advanced sports-car design. It's got an engine up front, with only two valves per cylinder, and those valves are opened and closed with pushrods, just as they were in engines a lifetime ago. Parts of the body are made of fiberglass, a distinctly old-fashioned material compared with the aluminum, magnesium, and carbon fiber used by the Corvette's competitors.

And yet, the Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 does one thing very well: it carries two people as fast as possible, whether on straight or winding roads. The Corvette is the only U.S. volume car with ceramic brake rotors and a polycarbonate window in its hood that gives a peek at the intercooler. Chevrolet's goals are simple: maximize power, minimize mass.

Developed under the code name Blue Devil, the ZR1 is built around a 6.2-liter aluminum V8 developing 462 kilowatts (620 horsepower) of power and 807 newton meters (595 foot­pounds) of torque. The aluminum block has the dimensions of the classic Chevrolet small-block V8, but this one is hand-built at a special engine shop with processes used only for racing engines. For instance, a deck plate is installed on the aluminum block, to simulate the pressure and minute dimensional differences created by the cylinder heads, before the cast-iron cylinder liners are pressed into it.

A Roots-type supercharger crams air into the engine via an intercooler, providing a denser dose of oxygen that's nevertheless cooled down enough to fend off power-sapping premature combustion. Like most supercharged engines, it can deliver close to peak power over a wide range of engine speeds, from about 2500 revolutions per minute to 6600 rpm.

To handle all that power, the clutch uses a pair of smaller discs rather than the single plate of other Corvettes. This spreads the torque over a greater area and reduces inertia by 25 percent, letting the engine spool up or down more quickly. As with the highest-performance German cars, the ZR1's brake rotors are made of ceramic silicon carbide reinforced with carbon fiber, which is less susceptible to the friction-induced changes that can cause brake power to fade temporarily after repeated high-speed braking.

Ride control on the ZR1 employs a suspension of magnetic particles in a fluid instead of mechanical shocks. The viscosity of the fluid changes in response to a magnetic field, which varies every millisecond in response to inputs from sensors providing data on speed, suspension, and road surface conditions.

The roof, hood, front fenders, rocker panels, and some smaller parts are made of carbon fiber instead of steel, and the weight saved offsets the heavier engine. The car weighs just 1520 kilograms (3351 pounds).

Chevrolet hadn't released performance data by press time, but it said the ZR1 is expected to be the first production Corvette to exceed 320 kilometers per hour (200 miles per hour). It's rumored that the car accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in less than 3.5 seconds. The factory did confirm that the cornering grip is more than 1 genough to make you feel twice your weight in a perfectly banked curve. That's among the highest g-forces of any production vehicle today.

At roughly US $100 000, the ZR1 bests cars costing two to four times as much. It's the only U.S. vehicle that routinely competes successfully in the fabled 24 Heures du Mans race, better known as Le Mansheady company indeed for a car from Kentucky.

A plug-in hybrid with its own mobile phoneand then some

This small and handsome Audi concept contains a surprise that wowed the gadget lovers at the 2007 Tokyo Motor Show: the removable “Audi mobile device,” which combines elements of the iPhone, a key fob, a media player, and a wireless security monitor.

You can make phone calls, view maps, listen to music, and watch videos on the bright red device, but you can also unlock the car, ensure you locked the doors, start the engine remotely (to warm it up on a cold day), and view what's going on inside the car via an interior camera (in case the kidsor thievestake it for a spin).

The Metroproject is one of several European concept cars this year equipped with a plug­in hybrid-electric power train. Here, a lithium­ion battery pack provides an electric range of up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) at a top speed of more than 100 km/h. The 1.4-liter engine cuts in when the battery's charge falls below 20 percent of its maximum.

Multihole injectors deliver fuel directly into the combustion chambers, and the turbo has been tuned to deliver power across the range of engine speeds. This arrangement minimizes the “turbo lag” that usually comes when the turbocharger spools up to a speed that's fast enough to compress the air it delivers to the intake manifold. Audi claims that 80 percent of the engine's peak torque is available from 1250 revolutions per minute.

The Metroproject's Quattro all-wheel drive is delivered by a combination of engine and motor. The combustion engine, generating 240 newton meters (177 foot-pounds) of torque, drives the front wheels; a 30-kilowatt (40 horsepower) electric motor, which adds 200 Nm (147 ft-lb), powers the rear wheels.

Audi says the hybrid system provides 15 percent better fuel efficiency than you'd get by using the engine alone. With a top speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) and acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 7.8 seconds, the Metroproject is something of a “performance hybrid”a concept that so far hasn't proven popular in the United States, currently the largest market for hybrids of all sorts.

Drivers can choose between “efficiency” and “dynamic” configurations, which vary the control settings for throttle mapping, shift points, suspension stiffness, and other systems. Such variable personalities within the same car are another increasingly common feature in concepts (and a few production vehicles). They offer the driver a choice among profiles that combine different settings for the car's various electronic control systems, usually maximizing fuel economy at one extreme and performance at the other.

A new type of engine in a radical reinterpretation of the big benz

Low and sleek, the styling of this highly conceptual study for a future full­size S-Class Mercedes-Benz is almost as striking as its tiny power plant: a 1.8­liter four-cylinder engine that combines the advantages of diesel and spark-ignition engines while avoiding the disadvantages peculiar to each.

First let's review: spark-ignition engines use a spark plug to ignite a vapor of gasoline and air, compressed at a ratio of perhaps 10:1, so that the burn starts at one end of the combustion chamber and propagates to the other. Diesel engines compress the vapor to a much higher ratiosay, 25:1so that it combusts spontaneously, beginning at the edges and propagating inward.

The Mercedes design gets the best of both worlds by exploiting a formerly wasted product: the exhaust gas left over from the previous combustion cycle. That gas prewarms the incoming fuel-air mixture so that it needs less compression to reach ignition temperature. There are two such injections per cycle, and both require a very fine control of temperature and pressure.

When the piston reaches the top of its compression stroke, at a ratio closer to a spark-ignition engine's than a diesel's, the ignition begins spontaneously, not only at the edges of the chamber but at many points throughout. The result is a complete, efficient burn at temperatures too low for the formation of nitrous oxidesthe diesel engine's Achilles' heel. Although the new engine's combustion produces less torque than you'd get from either a diesel or a spark-ignition engine, you'll never notice the lack under partial loadwhen you're at cruising speed, for instance. When you do need that torque, the engine operates just like its spark-ignition counterpart.

This design is known in the industry as homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI), although Mercedes calls it DiesOtto, in homage to Rudolph Diesel and Nikolaus Otto, who invented the diesel and spark-ignition engines, respectively, in the 19th century. For many years the idea was shelved because practical engine controls were lacking. Relentless improvement in processing power, as quantified by Moore's Law, has now solved that problem.

The F700's engine includes two turbosa small one for lower engine speeds, a large one for higher speedsplus additional torque on launch from an electric motor integrated into the transmission. There's also a modification to the crankshaft, which the manufacturer doesn't spell out, that makes it possible to vary the engine's compression ratio. (Other manufacturers experimenting with HCCI engines, notably General Motors, make no such modification.)

The results are fairly startling. The carmaker claims 190 kilowatts (255 horsepower) at maximum load from a mere 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine while using only 5.3 liters per 100 kilometers (44 miles per gallon) at cruising speedsin a vehicle weighing 1700 kilograms (3748 pounds).

The drawbacks? First, each cylinder needs its own pressure transducer so that the engine controller can fine-tune the combustion cycle, and those transducers are still very expensive. Second, the torrent of data from those transducers and other sensors makes the logic in the engine controller far more challenging.

In time, HCCI engines might be cheaper than diesels to build because they don't need the structural reinforcement that makes high-compression diesels heavier than conventional engines of equal power. They can also dispense with the complex emissions-control systems (such as Mercedes's Bluetec) that diesels need in order to meet California standards.

The F700 concept has a slew of other fascinating features, from rear-hinged rear doors to its Pre­Scan hydraulic active suspension, which continuously processes optical data from the road ahead to change its settings proactively.

The industry expects HCCI engines to make it into production sometime between 2015 and 2020. This concept car could be the basis of perhaps the least conservative model ever seen in the S-Class, the most prestigious Mercedes line. Even in a world of rising oil prices and legislated limits on carbon emissions, this daring vehicle shows that there's life left in the combustion engine.

Meet FlexRay, the new high-speed automotive data bus

Remember how magical the first antilock brakes seemed, back in the 1980s, when they stopped your car smoothly with half the wheels on ice and the other half on dry pavement? Those systems processed sensor data a few times per second, feeding the information to a dedicated brake controller. Compare that with today's cars, which process data from scores of in-car sensorsand even include external factors, like vehicle proximityand instantly crunch the numbers with up to a dozen control systems, integrated by a vehicle controller. Now consider tomorrow's car, which will be nothing less than a local area network on wheels. For it, the relevant metric will be bandwidth.

The BMW X6 is the first production vehicle to build in the next order of bandwidth, using a scheme called FlexRay, a high-speed data bus developed by a consortium of carmakers and component suppliers. FlexRay offers two communication channels, each with a data rate of 10 megabits per second, a 10- to 40-fold increase over current in-car communications protocols, depending on how the system is implemented.

FlexRay ferries data among the components of adaptive drive, a vastly enhanced descendant of yesteryear's automatic braking. Instead of just detecting a wheel's traction, adaptive drive uses a central controller to interpret sensor data on speed, steering angle, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, body and wheel velocity, damper position, and other criteria. The system controls body roll and adjusts the dampers to keep the vehicle stable during virtually any maneuver.

The all-wheel-drive X6which BMW calls a sports activity coupedoesn't stint on horsepower, either. It's offered with a 4.4-liter aluminum V8 that puts its twin turbochargers in a novel position. They nestle between the V­shaped banks of the engine instead of hanging off the exhaust manifolds outside the V. The scheme works because BMW has switched the position of the manifolds and the air intakes, so that the exhaust gases flow inside the V­formation and therefore need to travel just a few centimeters to reach the vanes of the charger's turbine. This way, the exhaust can spin the turbine up with less delay between stamping on the accelerator and getting that extra turbo goodness.

To make that process possible, the company developed turbochargers from materials that could operate in the hotter environment between the banks, a virtual oven that continuously bakes the turbo system at hundreds of degrees.

Another innovation is what BMW calls Dynamic Performance Control, or DPCone entry in an alphabet soup of electronic traction, suspension, and engine control systems. The DPC controls the effects of a rear differential that includes two planetary gear sets, each containing a central gear (the “sun”) spun by engine torque. This sun is surrounded by planet gears that are in turn housed in a ring gear that drives the individual wheel through two clutch packs, allowing the controller to reduce or multiply torque to each rear wheel individually to enhance steering, stability, and traction.

Possibly the world's most practical ultrahigh-performance car

The Nissan GT-R has always combined pulse-quickening performance with technological innovation. It offered all-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, and twin turbochargers many years before these features could be had in lesser vehicles. This, the fifth generation since the GT­R's inception in 1969, is the first to be offered globally, including in the very visible U.S. market.

The car's designers have always eschewed the V8 or V12 engines used in many of its two­seater rivals, instead using twin turbochargers to squeeze out all the power it needs from six cylinders. This year, though, they're set in “V” formation, a switch from the prior model's in­line six. The resulting 358 kilowatts (480 horsepower) of power and 583 newton meters (437 foot­pounds) of torque are even more impressive, considering that the car also qualifies for the ultralow-emissions vehicle rating of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

The engine sits aft of the front­wheel centers, and it drives not a conventional attached gearbox but a rear transaxle containing a dual-clutch transmission and transfer case, which then splits power among the four wheels. The dual-clutch transmission assigns separate clutches for the odd and even gears, letting it preselect the next highest and lowest gear for almost instantaneous shifts.

That unusual arrangement lets Nissan achieve a weight distribution of 53 percent front, 47 percent rearclose to the 50-50 ideal. The all-wheel drive system offers a torque split ranging smoothly from 100 percent rear to 50/50 front-rear. The driver can choose among three settingsNormal, Comfort, or R, for ultimate handlingfor several systems, including engine and transmission mappings and suspension control. How often a GT­R driver would select Comfort is moot.

Nissan says the instrument panel display is “video gameinspired,” not an unalloyed gain for those who prefer drivers to focus on driving. As is fitting in a performance car, the panel shows acceleration, brake-pedal pressure, and steering angle; it even records large blocks of operating data, like the black box on a jetliner. When not showing such data, the panel also controls the navigation system, audio equipment, and mobile phone system.

Newer, better equipped…and lighter

The latest Mazda2 (called the Demio in some markets) has gotten more capacious, more capable, better equipped, and at 990 kilograms, 100 kg lighterall at the same time. With one model that offers both Mazda's Miller-cycle engine, this time in 1.3-liter form, and the company's first continuously variable transmission, it begins to look like a very advanced small car indeed.

The Miller cycle increases the efficiency of a four-cycle “Otto” engine with a fifth cycle, by dividing the compression stroke into two parts. In the first 20 to 30 percent of the stroke, the intake valves are held open so the piston can push some of the fuel-air mixture out the door, as it were. This leakage eases the load at a point when the piston's leverage is at its worst. Then the standard procedure is to push the mixture back in again using a superchargera compressor driven by the crankshaftuntil the piston reaches a mechanically more advantageous position in which to finish the compression. Because this exploitation of mechanical advantage saves more energy than the supercharger consumes, overall efficiency improves.

Mazda, however, dispenses with the supercharger, instead minimizing the fuel-air leakage with variable valve timing and clever tweaks to the combustion chamber. The company has also minimized the lower power and torque of the Miller cycle. Compared with the conventional version of the same engine, power is down just 1 kilowatt and torque declines just slightly, to 120 from 124 newton meters (89 foot­pounds).

Mazda says the 1.3-L Miller-cycle model uses just 4.3 liters per 100 kilometers (55 miles per gallon) in the Japanese fuel-economy cycle and cuts emissions to 75 percent below the old limits that took effect in 2005. (It is also offered with a 1.5-L engine, and a 1.4-L diesel in Europe.) The Mazda2 is not sold in the United States.

Ford is a part owner of Mazda, and so the car's design is an early indicator of one element in Ford's “blueprint for sustainability” to improve energy efficiency: make it lighter. Mazda slimmed the car down even while meeting new crash-safety standards and adding hardware, including entertainment gear and navigation systems. It did that by using ultrahigh­strength tensile steel and stronger welds to reduce weight while improving rigidity. It also improved the coefficient of drag to 0.32, respectable for a car just 3.9 meters long but 1.5 meters high and 1.7 meters wide.

A stunning stereo, in a breathtaking design

It's a striking, elegant departure, the first Jaguar to break away from traditional styling cues in 40 years. It may be the most important car in Jaguar's history, the one that must prove there's a future for the storied marque after Ford sells it to Tata Motors, the Indian maker of the lowest-priced car in the world (see “2009 Tata Nano”).

Of course, you wouldn't be reading this if the XF were mere eye candyits tech credentials are solid too. The interior fittings emerge from hiding only when needed. When a driver gets in, the car senses the proximity of the electronic key card and its “start” button pulses red. Pressing the button causes the rotary gear selector to rise out of the console and into the driver's hand. On first demonstration, you can almost hear Q of the James Bond films saying, “Really, 007, just once I would like to get a car back in one piece!”

Similarly, passengers can't see the dashboard vents until they wave their hands toward them, whereupon sensors trigger motors that rotate the vents into place. Overhead lights and the glove-compartment lid operate the same way. The goal is to reduce cabin clutter and increase the sense of soothing calm for all occupants; soft phosphor blue “halo” lighting heightens the mood.

The wizards of Bowers & Wilkins, an audiophile favorite in Worthing, England, planned the acoustics of this high-speed concert hall. They worked alongside Jaguar's engineers, putting 14 custom-designed speakers in the optimal places. The larger speakers have distinctive yellow Kevlar cones, for better linear response and reduced distortion; the four tweeters carry aluminum transducer domes that cut the weight of the one moving part, extending treble response an octave above that of standard designs.

The 440-watt surround-sound system uses Dolby logic in the remote amplifier, with the de rigueur inputs for personal MP3 players and USB storage devices, of course, all controlled through the car's touch-screen display. The system continuously monitors interior noise, adjusting its equalization to compensate.

Not all the tech goes toward creature comforts. There's a system that uses radar to alert the driver to nearby vehicles he or she can't see. The optional adaptive cruise controlquickly becoming a must-have on luxury carskeeps the car a safe distance behind the one that's just ahead. And Jaguar also offers an automatic speed limiterhandy for those already saddled with a few speeding tickets.

Re-creating the people's car

In January, some 100 years after Henry Ford launched his Model Tthe first car expressly designed for people of modest meansRatan Tata did it all over again. The chairman of India's Tata Motors drove a white Nano onto the stage at the Auto Expo in New Delhi, making good on the promise of a 1-lakh car (100 000 rupees, or about US $2500).

Like predecessor “people's cars” that put whole nations on wheelsthe Model T, Germany's Volkswagen Beetle, France's Citroën 2CV, Italy's Fiat 500it uses technology only where it's needed.

The basic model forgoes air-conditioning, power steering, central locking, electric windows, a radio, a passenger-side mirror, even sun visors and a second windshield wiper. Its 623­cubic-centimeter two-cylinder engine produces only 24 kilowatts (32 horsepower)roughly the same as a midrange motorcycle in the United Statesand uses just a single balancer shaft to reduce vibration. However, it does have multipoint fuel injection (rather than a less precise carburetor), its exhaust is cleaned by a catalytic converter, and it is said to meet current European emissions regulations. Top speed is quoted at roughly 100 kilometers per hour (62 miles per hour)although one Indian auto executive was quoted as saying that the wheel bearings will wear out quickly above 75 km/h.

Breaking with classic economy-car design, the 3.1-meter-long Nano does not use a transverse front engine and front-wheel drive. Instead, the engine is at the rear and under the floor, saving Tata Motors the cost of fancy constant-velocity joints to drive wheels that must also steer. Paradoxically, this allowed structural engineers to create a deeper front crush zone. In a frontal collision, that zone deforms more progressively and transfers energy throughout the frame, without thrusting a large lump of metal into the laps of front-seat occupants.

The car has an all-steel structure and includes such safety features as controlled-crush zones, side-intrusion barriers in the doors, and seat beltsthough not a single air bag. Tata says the car was designed to pass international crash tests. Its weight of roughly 510 kilograms (1124 pounds), though, means the 500-strong engineering team will have to have done its calculations very carefully to achieve that goal. In a collision between cars of varying weights, the lighter one almost always incurs more damage.

So far, few if any reporters have even sat in a Nano, let alone driven it. But Tata Motors has ambitious goals, saying it expects to build 250 000 Nanos at a West Bengal plant in the car's first year of production, and perhaps 1 million or more annually once the company begins marketing them in developing nations throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Tata Motors recently announced that it would develop a car capable of meeting European emissions regulations and sell it in Europe within four years.

Unlike Henry Ford, Tata must contend with his car's environmental impact. Only 7 of every 1,000 Indians now own cars; if that percentage were to quadruple, say, it could increase air pollution and traffic jams horrendously. Rejendra Pachauri, chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in Geneva, has gone so far as to say that the Nano disturbs his sleep. At the unveiling, though, Ratan Tata said that Pachauri “need not have nightmares.” He noted that not only did the Nano meet all current Indian emissions standards but that in many cases it might replace a two-stroke scooter, which has far worse emissions.

At half the cost of the Maruti 800, currently India's cheapest new car, the Nano offers millionsor shall we say billions?the dream of personal mobility. If the company can deliver on its promises, Tata's Nano could merit inclusion in a Top 10 Car list for all time.

Extreme fuel economy, the old-fashioned way

Demonstrating that diesel engines really do save fuel and cut greenhouse-gas emissions, Volkswagen's fuel-economy champ burns just 3.8 liters per 100 kilometers (62 miles per gallon) and emits just 99 grams per kilometer of carbon dioxide. That's far below the maximum fleet average of 130 g/km that the European community proposes to implement in upcoming regulations.

As Volkswagen often points out, it's also less than the 104 g/km of CO2 that the Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle produces. The comparison's a bit unfair, because the Prius is the larger car, but it underscores just how much can be wrung from a turbocharged diesel in a car weighing less than 1100 kilograms (2425 pounds).

Starting with its standard 1.4­liter three-cylinder diesel engine, Volkswagen altered the direct injection mapping that squirts the fuel into each cylinder. It also took advantage of the variable geometry of its turbochargeran exhaust-driven turbine that crams air into the combustion chamber. At low engine speeds, the turbo output passes through a smaller port to provide higher pressure until the engine revs up to full speed, when the port enlarges to keep the turbo's boost consistent.

It's worth noting that the Polo would not comply with North American emissions standards in its current form, even though it's fitted with a diesel particulate filter. But the 59-kilowatt diesel's high torque of 195 newton meters (144 foot­pounds) and top speed of 176 km/h (109 mph) make the Polo usable in all kinds of traffic. The gearbox uses higher ratios than other Polos, to reduce engine speed at a given road speed. And Volkswagen fitted unique front body panelsgrille and front fasciato lower the car's wind resistance at speed.

The first Polo BlueMotion, launched in the summer of 2006, consumed 3.9 L/100 km (60 mpg) and emitted 102 g/km of CO2. For the 2008 model year, VW added tires with low rolling resistance and a number of further aerodynamic tweaks. The modifications brought the coefficient of drag down to 0.30a challenge on such a small, square carand improved on both of those numbers. And not a single advanced battery pack or electric-drive motor was needed. (Hedging its bets, VW showed a Golf concept with a diesel engine and full hybrid system at the March Geneva Motor Show that it said used a mere 3.4 L/100 km, or 69 mpg.)

Ford teams up with Microsoft to take on GM's OnStar

This glass-roofed, full-size Lincoln sedan offers the latest release of Sync, Ford's entertainment and mobile communications system, and it will also pioneer a brand-new fuel-efficient engine technology.

Codeveloped by Microsoft and Ford (which has a North American exclusive until the end of 2008), the current version of Sync coordinates entertainment, navigation, and mobile phone systems using voice-activated commands in English, Spanish, and French. Its Bluetooth wireless connection is said to work with virtually any Bluetooth phone and includes the transfer of ringtones and phone-book contents. Sync will thus play the ringtone associated with a specific caller, which can be heard through the car's speakers. Web-equipped phones can even stream audio to the sound system.

Sync's USB 2.0 port lets MP3 players and other devices recharge themselves and transfer files to a built-in hard drive, as well as a standard audio input jack. It reads aloud incoming text messages and e-mail, although it can't convert spoken responses back to text. Users can control the system by speaking to it, which lets them make calls without touching the phone crucial wherever it's against the law to use handheld devices while driving.

Ford says the second release of Sync, due out this summer, will offer a host of new information within its navigation system as a separate option. The Sirius Travel Link subscription service will provide real-time news on traffic conditions in 78 U.S. markets as well as five-day weather updates, local fuel prices, movie listings, and other data via satellite download.

Another feature, known as 911 Assist, puts Sync into direct competition with General Motors' OnStar system. It automatically has the driver's cellphone dial a 911 emergency service dispatcher whenever the vehicle's air bags deploy, unless the driver cancels the call in 10 seconds. Sync will be available on almost all Ford models by the end of this year. More than 1 million Sync-equipped cars are expected to be on the road next year.

Within a year of its launch this summer, the MKS will acquire its second innovation: Ford's EcoBoost engine, in 3.5-liter V6 form. Combining gasoline direct injection with a turbocharger, the V6 delivers power and torque at least equivalent to the company's 4.6-L V8, which breathes without any such respiratory assistance. Because it's so much smaller, though, it will realize a 10 to 20 percent improvement in fuel efficiency, and it will emit up to 15 percent less carbon dioxide.

Injecting the gasoline directly into the cylinder produces a cooler, denser charge, delivering better performance than conventional port injection, where the fuel is injected into air in the intake manifold. Adding a turbocharger specifically tuned for direct injection gives higher torque460 newton meters (339 foot-pounds) versus 365 to 420 Nm for the V8across a broad range of engine speeds. That delivers power when it's needed with fewer gear changes.

Ford is far from being the first carmaker to use direct injection and turbos, but this is the first time such an engine has been offered in volume to U.S. family-car buyers. The company has aggressive plans to roll out EcoBoost on both four- and six-cylinder designs, and it expects to be building half a million such engines within five years.

To Probe Further

See our slideshow: Green Machines: This year's top tech cars squeezing more performance from less fuel than before, leaving a smaller carbon footprint.

Listen to our audio presentation, "Top 10 Tech Cars for 2008."

4) Super Soaker Inventor Invents New Thermoelectric Generator
Willie D. Jones, IEEE Spectrum, 20 March 2008  http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/mar08/6079

His best-known invention, a high-powered water pistol, is a fun solution to a hot day in the sun, but to Lonnie Johnson, the potential of solar energy is no laughing matter. “The sun is the only source that will be able to meet future terawatt levels of power demand, as more and more countries become industrialized and seek to improve their standard of living,” says Johnson, who is also the founder of Johnson Electro Mechanical Systems, in Atlanta. Harnessing the sun’s energy, of course, is easier said than done. But Johnson has developed a new kind of device that converts heat into electric current. He says it has the potential to be the best-ever method of converting solar energy into a form that we can use.

Among the potential applications are at utility-scale solar thermal farms and for plug-in hybrid vehicles, in which the device would use waste heat from the car’s internal combustion engine to help power the car’s electric motor. Johnson even envisions a day when miniaturized versions will power consumer electronics. Imagine your laptop producing power from its own waste heat, your cellphone being charged as you hold the handset against your face, or an implantable medical device exploiting the difference in temperature between, say, your chest cavity and the skin on your arm.

Johnson, who made a fortune when he licensed his most famous invention, the Super Soaker water gun, to a toy company in the late 1980s, says a prototype of the heat engine, called the Johnson Thermoelectromechanical Energy Conversion System, or JTEC, will be ready in a few months. It will convert heat to electricity at rates reaching just under 40 percent of the maximum theoretical efficiency available in an engine operating between two temperaturesthe Carnot efficiency. The former U.S. Air Force and NASA Jet Propulsion Lab engineer says his group’s aim is to produce a commercial version whose efficiency can approach 85 percent of the Carnot ideal. Such a device would be capable of converting 66 percent of the available thermal energy into electrical energy.

In contrast, photovoltaic devices have net conversion efficiencies in the teens and thermionic (or thermoelectric) chips reach only a little higher than 20 percent of Carnot when converting heat to electricity.

As in all other heat engines, JTEC’s conversion efficiency is dependent on the difference in temperature between its hot and cool zones. For example, if the hot side is raised to 1100 °Celsiuswhich Johnson says an eventual commercial version would be able to withstandwhile the cool side remained at room temperature, 25 °Celsius, it could, ideally, be 78 percent Carnot efficient. But what sets JTEC apart is its all-solid-state design. The lack of moving parts such as turbines and pistons eliminates nearly all of the parasitic losses that, in machines like an automobile engine, greatly lower efficiency. The conversion efficiency achieved by the best combustion turnbines is about half of what a commercialized JTEC device would offer, according to Johnson.

The JTEC’s setup is similar to that of a fuel cell [see an animation of how the JTEC works here A proton-conducting membrane allows protons from a hydrogen molecule to pass from one zone to another while preventing electrons from crossing the barrier. The electrons are therefore forced to move through an external circuit, in the process delivering current to a load. But instead of consuming hydrogen as fuel and expelling water, the JTEC is a closed system. It uses hydrogen as a working fluid that is conserved within the device.

The path the hydrogen takes is an elongated loop reminiscent of a racetrack. At the start/finish line, near the high-temperature heat source, the hydrogen is in a hot, high-pressure chamber. It immediately encounters an electrode that breaks each molecule into two protons and two electrons and carries the electrons to an external circuit, where they power a device or do some other useful thing. The pressure in the chamber forces the protons through a proton conductive membrane, after which they encounter another electrode that completes the circuit. This second electrode reunites the protons with the electrons, reconstituting the hydrogen gas.

The gas, now at low pressure, then heads down the loop’s straightaway toward the device’s cool side. At the low-temperature end of the loop the gas runs into another membrane electrode assembly stack, which, like the one on the hot side, has a proton membrane sandwiched between two electrodes. The same process occurs at this assembly, but instead of creating a voltage, an applied voltage goes to building up the pressure that will propel the gas back up to the high-temperature, high-pressure chamber where the process begins again.

The device’s net energy output results from the fact that the voltage generated on the hot side is greater than the voltage applied to the cool side: the higher the temperature difference, the greater the net voltage.

An important efficiency-boosting design element is the regenerative heat exchanger located between the hot and cool zones. This allows the hydrogen gas exiting the hot side to transfer its heat to the hydrogen that, having just been reconstituted on the heat engine’s cool side, needs to be reheated in order to prevent a drop in the temperature differential that drives the process. This allows the JTEC to get more out of the heat input. It also ensures that less energy is needed to pump the hydrogen gas up to full pressure at the cold end of the loop.

“Johnson has opened up a fundamentally new pathway to generate electricity from heat,” says Paul Werbos, program director for power, control, and adaptive networks at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Werbos, an IEEE Fellow, says the NSF is funding Johnson’s heat-engine research because of the strong chance that it could cut the cost of solar power in half. “We’re in big trouble,” says Werbos, referring to the possibility of a future without enough energy. “This could be a way out.” Werbos acknowledges that the product’s development is still at an early stage where unforeseen problems might creep in. “But I don’t see any showstoppers,” he says.

When will a commercial version appear? “That depends on funding, which will determine how aggressively we can move forward,” says Johnson. He notes that the company has been seeking strategic partnerships with organizations that would benefit from using the device and that it continues to pursue government grants to aid in its development. For now, the focus is on optimizing the design and layout of JTEC’s proton-conducting materials and electrodes with the aim of creating a stack containing current generating cells, each less than a millimeter thick.

5) Dr. Tom Valone on Coast to Coast AM
4/25/08 IRI Press Release, Coast to Coast AM with George Noory  http://www.coasttocoastam.com/shows/2008/04/28.html
Tom Valone, Editor of Future Energy eNews, Discusses Zero Point Energy, Tesla Technology, Electrogravitics
Doctor of Engineering Physics Tom Valone will discuss his work in zero point energy, Tesla technology, & electro-gravitics and how these technologies translate into possible UFO energy and propulsion systems on Monday, 4/28/08, starting at 11 PM Pacific time (2 AM East Coast time) on affiliated AM radio stations across the nation. In Maryland - WCBM-680 AM; in DC - WMAL-630 AM; in Virginia -
Recent featured speaker at the Science and Consciousness Conference (Santa Fe NM, March 28 - April 2, 2008) and at the X- Conference (Washington DC, April 18-20, 2008). Scheduled speaker at the World Future Society (July 26-28, 2008, Washington Hilton Hotel www.wfs.org ) and the 44th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (July 20-23, 2008, Hartford CT http://www.aiaa.org/content.cfm?pageid=230&lumeetingid=1874 ).
Thomas Valone, PhD is the President of Integrity Research Institute and editor of the Future Energy newsletter and Enews. He has authored 6 books and numerous scientific studies, articles and papers related to energy in all forms. He is the inventor of several instruments, including the PREMIER (Photonic Rejuvenation Energizing Machine & Immunizing Electrification Radiator) machine, Dental Vapor Ionizer, Powerline Gaussmeter, static field gaussmeter, ELF spectrum analyzer, and a geomagnetometer which are still on the market today.

A Professor at a SUNY-accredited, Erie Community College in Buffalo NY, he taught courses from 1976 to 1981. Dr. Valone holds a PhD in General Engineering from Kennedy-Western University (now Warren National), an M.A. in Physics from SUNY at Buffalo, B.S. Physics and B.S. in Electrical Engineering, from SUNY at Buffalo and is a Licensed Professional Engineer with the state of New York. http://www.coasttocoastam.com/guests/1693.html
Integrity Research Institute is also scheduling a website makeover for the radio event to help make the increased traffic run smoother and ordering much easier online at www.IntegrityResearchInstitute.org

6) Convert Car to Run on Water
Ted Klein, April, 2008 Press Release, http://www.runyourcarwithwater.com/?hop=watertt

Convert Your Car TODAY to Run on Water and gas to save over 40% on fuel costs!

Would you like to find out how to run your vehicle on water and stop wasting money on gas?

This do-it-yourself conversion guide is very affordable (under $150) and EASY with step-by-step instructions.

The conversion WILL NOT void your warranty because it is 100% reversible! It's easy to install and remove.

Did you know that you can convert your car to a water-burning car? You can run your car on water, supplemental to gasoline, to increase your car's fuel efficiency and reduce your fuel costs significantly.

Works on gas or diesel powered cars, vans, trucks, and SUVs. (Not tested on hybrids)

Your car will become at least 40% more fuel efficient and produce cleaner emissions.

Convert your car for the lowest price. Similar conversion kits cost up to $600 and up!

Works with plain tap water. No need for distilled water or special water additives!

We've simplified the process. The steps are easy, and the materials are affordable.

Our easy conversion guide will show you how to use electricity from your car's battery to separate water into a gas called HHO (2 Hydrogen + 1 Oxygen). HHO, also called Brown's Gas or Hydroxy, burns smoothly and provides significant energy - while the end product is just H2O! HHO provides the atomic power of Hydrogen, while maintaining the stability of water.

Can Water Really Power a Car?

The answer is YES, ABSOLUTELY! We have made the technology to build a water-burning hybrid easy and affordable.

Water can be used to fuel a car when used as a supplement to gasoline. In fact, very little water is needed! only one quart of water provides over 1800 gallons of HHO gas which can literally last for months and significantly increase your vehicle's fuel efficiently, improve emissions quality, and save you money.

Thousands of successful water-conversions around the world are proof that this technology works and will soon catch on! Some industry insiders say its just a matter of time before this water-burning technology will be standard in new automobiles. One expert estimates most cars will be using this technology by 2012, but until the auto manufacturers catch up, you can use this technology for yourself today at a very reasonable set-up cost.

How Much Does it Cost?

The conversion guide is on sale today (check bottom of page for price) and all of the raw materials cost less than $60 and are easy to find at your local hardware and auto-parts stores. Once you get the conversion set-up, you can even start converting your friends' and family's cars and help them spend less money on gas.

The guide includes over 90 pages of detailed instructions that are very easy to follow and offer the best value and performance available anywhere.

In fact, we received a testimonial from a customer in Estes Park, Colorado who is advertising his conversion services on Craigslist after learning how to do the conversion using this easy-to-follow eBook.

The process is very safe because the combustible gas is extracted as needed and burned steadily from the water, unlike larger volumes of pure hydrogen which are highly flammable.


Our set-up produces hydrogen as your car needs it, rather than using storage tanks. Thousands of cars have been safely converted without any issues or incidents.

Best of all, this conversion process is completely reversible so it will not void your auto manufacturers warranty. It simply acts as an add-on to significantly increase your fuel efficiency at a very low, one-time sale price until April 27, 2008.

Endorsed by experts (see video on website http://www.runyourcarwithwater.com/?hop=watertt )


Ed. Note: This should be viewed as a an energy storage means which may be advantageous if grid electricity was used but not an energy source.   - TV

7) Harnessing River Whirlpools puts Energy on Tap
Whirlpools created by currents as they flow over obstacles are powerful enough to tear apart bridges and offshore rigs. So why not use them as a source of renewable power?

Previous attempts to harness energy from the flow of the world's rivers and oceans have had limited success, at best. Tidal flow can only be tapped at certain times of day, while underwater turbines are only viable if they are mounted in rapid currents.

Now researchers led by Michael Bernitsas at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, are preparing for the first outdoor trials of a technology that makes use of the slow-moving currents down rivers and across the ocean.

When water flows over an underwater obstacle, whirlpools or vortices form alternately above and below it. The vortices create a tugging effect, so the result is an alternating force that yanks the object up and down (see Diagram). It is these oscillations that can have devastating consequences for rigs and bridges, but Bernitsas has now created a device that turns them into usable amounts of electricity.

In his lab, he took a cylinder 10 centimetres in diameter and 91 centimetres long with the same average density as water and suspended it horizontally in a bath. Then he generated currents of between 0.5 and 1.0 metres per second - speeds that are common in rivers. The vortices generated by the flow moved the cylinders up and down, and by attaching the cylinders to springs that turn an electric generator he was able to convert the motion into 10 watts of electrical energy. Bernitsas calls the technology Vortex Induced Vibrations Aquatic Clean Energy, or VIVACE, and plans to commercialise it with his company Vortex Hydro Energy.

He has also come up with an idea for squeezing more energy from VIVACE. At the Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering conference in Estoril, Portugal, in June this year, he will show how roughening the surface of the cylinders allows them to capture more energy. The idea was inspired by the fact that fish that use energy from vortices to help propel themselves forward also have rough skin.

VIVACE's big test will come next year, when the team plans to deploy a larger version in the Detroit river. They expect it to generate 3 kilowatts, enough to power lights on a nearby pier, and claim that still larger versions could produce megawatts of power at a cost of around 5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This would make it competitive with coal and gas-fuelled generators.

These projections are contested, however, by commentators who point out that the performance has yet to be tested in the fluctuating current of a real river. They also have doubts about the claimed cost of the power it produces, since it is not yet clear how much the system will cost to maintain. "It is very new and very different to existing devices," says Walter Musial of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. "There are a lot of questions still to be answered."

Energy and Fuels - Learn more about the looming energy crisis in our comprehensive special report.

From issue 2651 of New Scientist magazine, 11 April 2008, page 24

Provided as a public service from www.IntegrityResearchInstitute.org where a new and improved website will be launched on Monday April 28, 2008. Visit us to see the difference, including the ease of ordering publications.