Salt Lake City, July 9-11, 2001


Review Submitted 7/16/01 by Gary V. Stephenson




Breakthrough Propulsion Physics - 1 (FPC-03)

Monday , 2:00 PM Chaired by: M. MILLIS, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH

2:00 PM AIAA-2001-3359
First Measurement of Repulsive Quantum Vacuum Forces
J. Maclay, Quantum Fields LLC, Richland Center, WI; J. Hammer, MEMS
Optical Inc., Huntsville, AL; M. George and L. Sanderson, Univ. of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL; R. Clark, MEMS Optical Inc., Huntsville, AL
2:30 PM AIAA-2001-3360
Overview of Breakthrough Propulsion Physics-Related Research at CIPA B. Haisch, California Inst. for Physics & Astrophysics, Palo Alto, CA
3:00 PM AIAA-2001-3361
Antimatter Production at a Potential Boundary M. LaPointe, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH
3:30 PM AIAA-2001-3362
United Kingdom Activities on Breakthrough Propulsion Physics M. Geer, British National Space Center (BNSC), London, England, UK
4:00 PM AIAA-2001-3363
Gravity Modification by High Temperature Superconductors C. Woods, Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
4:30 PM AIAA-2001-3364
Exploration of Anomalous Gravity Effects by rf-Pumped Magnetized Hight-T, Superconducting Oxides T. Robertson, NASA Marshall, Huntsville, AL
5:00 PM AIAA-2001-3365
YBCO Torroid and Magnetic Levitation System for Exploring Anomalous Gravitational Observations J. Gaines, Superconductive Components, Inc., Columbus, OH

Breakthrough Propulsion Physics - 2 (FPC-09)

Tuesday , 1:00 PM
Chaired by: M. MILLIS, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH

1:00 PM AIAA-2001-3653
A Proposed Experimental Assessment of a Possible Propellantless Propulsion System D. Goodwin, U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD
1:30 PM AIAA-2001-3654
The Electromagnetic Stress-Tensor As a Possible Space Drive Propulsion Concept J. Corum, Inst. for Software Research, Fairmont, WV
2:00 PM AIAA-2001-3655
Test Methodology for Evaluating Breakthrough Propulsion Physics J. Dering, P. Parhami, and J. Wes, SARA, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA
2:30 PM AIAA-2001-3656
Research on Achieving Thrust by EM Inertia Manipulation H. Brito, Centro de Investigaciones Aplicadas, Cordoba, Argentina
3:00 PM AIAA-2001-3657
Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna G. Fralick and J. Niedra, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH
3:30 PM AIAA-2001-3658
Specially Conditioned EM Radiation Research with Transmitting Toroid Antennas D. Froning, Flight Unlimited, Flagstaff, AZ; B. Cleveland and G. Hathaway, Hathaway Consulting Services, Toronto, Canada
4:00 PM AIAA-2001-3659
Anomalous Electrical-Field Force Generation Experiment H. Serrano, Gravitec, Inc., Kissimmee, FL; W. Hammond, NASA Marshall, Huntsville, AL; J. Rusek, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN
4:30 PM AIAA-2001-3660
An Experimental Investigation of the Physical Effects in a Dynamic Magnetic System V. Roschin, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia; S. Godin, Inst. for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

Breakthrough Propulsion Physics - 3 (FPC-15)
Wednesday , 2:00 PM
Chaired by: M. MILLIS, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH

2:00 PM AIAA-2001-3906
Search for Clock Effects of an Electric Field on Charged Particles H. Ringermacher, Kronotron Enterprises, LLC, Delanson, NY
2:30 PM AIAA-2001-3907
Rapid Spacetime Transport and Machian Mass Fluctuations: Theory and Experiment J. Woodward, California State Univ., Fullerton, CA
3:00 PM AIAA-2001-3908
Tests of Mach's Principle with a Mechanical Oscillator J. Cramer, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA
3:30 PM AIAA-2001-3909
Superluminal but Casual Wave Propagation M. Mojahedi, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
4:00 PM AIAA-2001-3910
Solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills Theory with Negative Effective Mass C. VanDenBroeck, Starlab Research, Ukkel, BE
4:30 PM AIAA-2001-3911
Induction and Amplification of Non-Newtonian Gravitational Fields M. Tajmar, Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, Seibersdorf, Austria
5:00 PM AIAA-2001-3912
Towards the Control of Gravity with Matter R. Tucker, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster, UK
5:30 PM AIAA-2001-3913
An Asymmetric Gravitational Wave Propulsion System J. Cameron, Transdimensional Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL; R. Shatas, 2C Computing, Huntsville, AL


Monday, 7/9/01, BPP Session #1, Marc Millis Chair

Marc announced that he will be stepping down as the project lead for NASA's BPP program. Peter Ouzts will be taking over as the project lead while Marc takes a two year sabbatical. Unfortunately, Marc also announced that his original opportunity fell through, so that now he has no plans during his sabbatical, and he is developing other options.

Also, it was announced that the Ohio Aerospace Institute will begin to administer project money for the NASA BPP program so that NASA money may be combined with funding from interested private parties & corporate sponsors such that the NASA efforts are more effectively leveraged. This arrangement will also serve to capture experimental results (esp. negative results) in a publicly published forum with the hopes of minimizing duplication of effort.


AIAA-2001-3359, G. Jordan Maclay

Maclay has developed an experimental technique for amplifying the Casimir effect with the hope of generating a measurable ZPE (Zero Point Energy) induced drive force. The idea is to replicate Forward's "ZPE cell", a miniature cavity, many hundreds or thousands of times in an array etched into a metal via Xray lithography. This amplifies the effect. The experimental setup was a 50um ball of Au coated polystyrene was suspended over the cavity array on the end of a cantilever. Results are TBD because MEMS Optical was not able to get the cavities smaller than 125nm, and they must be smaller than 100nm to measure an effect. 50 to 75nm would be ideal. This is a good experiment with low noise & should show some results once the proper geometry is achieved. ZPE theory + nanotechnology: a promising combination.

RESULTS: Experimental - TBD


AIAA-2001-3360, Bernie Haisch

Haisch is a leader in using SED (Stochastic Electro-Dynamics) to account for inertia and gravity. In this paper he focused on inertia as arising from a Rindler flux drag force due to ZPF (Zero Point Field) density non-uniformities that occur during acceleration. However, for gravity, Haisch seemed to be backing away from the Sakharov-Puthoff Conjecture (that gravity would disappear if EM and other fields were turned off). He stated only that the deviation from the geodesic will cause the same ZPF density non-uniformities as inertia, but refused to speculate on the root cause of the curved geodesic in the presence of matter (the cause of GR).

RESULTS: Theoretical - Fundamental


AIAA-2001-3361, Mike LaPointe

LaPointe proposed a new method for the production of anti-matter, which is currently very expensive to produce and requires the use of very large particle accelerators. Per the Klein Paradox it is known that at very large potential step sizes (V >> (KE+mc^2)) of very short distance (D< Compton Wavelength) matter / anti-matter pairs are produced that duplicate the original target particle. In practice these step sizes may be difficult to achieve. It was suggested that the Casimir effect could be invoked on one side of the boundary to help increase the step size by pushing one side down into a relative "negative energy" range. There is a possible future utility to this idea.

RESULTS: Theoretical - Applied Physics


AIAA-2001-3362, Geer (BSNC,UK) - Paper Withdrawn


AIAA-2001-3363, R.C. Woods

Woods (Sheffield, UK; BAE funded) presented experimental results of attempts to confirm, among other effects, the '92 Podkletnov Effect, where a levitated spinning SC (Super Conducting) disc of YBCO (Yit-Barium-Cu-Oxide) affects the local gravity field, i.e. flattens the local geodesic by shielding gravity. The experiment was very low noise and well constructed. The results were negative.

RESULTS: Experimental - NEGATIVE


AIAA-2001-3364, Tony Robertson

Robertson (NASA / MSFC) presented NASA's experimental attempts to confirm the '92 Podkletnov Effect, also using a SC YBCO, but without the rotation of the SC. In this case there was too much noise in the experimental setup to reach any usable conclusions. Work continues to reduce the noise in the experiment.

RESULTS: Experimental - TBD


AIAA-2001-3365, J. Gaines (SC Components Inc) - Paper Withdrawn


Tuesday, 7/10/01, BPP Session #2, Marc Millis Chair

Marc kicked off the meeting by announcing a number of related meeting that are scheduled to occur in the next year, including some in Europe. There are upcoming BPP related meetings to be held at CERN, including one that will have ESA sponsorship, and is tentatively scheduled for April of 2002. Stay tuned to the NASA BPP web site for details and updates.

More on the upcoming BPP Consortium: Administered by the Ohio Aerospace Institute, it will be titled "BPP Research Consortium", and will be funded by NASA at the .5M level next year, which is up from current levels. Private funding may also be added. It will maintain an archive of results and fund short, incremental tasks of 1 to 2 year duration every two years.


AIAA-2001-3653, Dave Goodwin (DOE)

Goodwin presented a proposal for an experimental proof of concept of an inertial drive propulsion system that does not use propellant. The proposed system would use a pulsed magnetic field approach, created by

switching 9000V, 30A power at a 400KHz rep rate, with a 100ns rise time, and would apply said power form to a metal plate. The goal was for 1um of movement during each pulse. Design details were vague. There was no explanation of momentum non-conservation. The theory behind the drive was left unstated. The project is apparently in development with un-named persons from Boeing's "Phantom Works" (our marketing arm) and is not currently funded. The reception was skeptical when details were not forthcoming.

RESULTS: Experimental - TBD, proposal only


AIAA-2001-3654, Jim Corum

Corum presented an experimental paper on the use of the Heaviside force in conjunction with a Slepian Antenna as a form of space drive using nothing more than the classical Maxwell stress tensor. Slepian proposed the same thing in 1949, but came to the conclusion that it would not be useful, since the time average of the resultant AC force would be zero. Corum's contribution has thus far been two-fold: (1) In conjunction with Dr. Alan Barnes of WVU he has experimentally shown that the AC version of the Slepian Resonating Antenna does produce a force, and has measured it to within 3.6%, and (2) has designed a way for Hartley's variable capacitor rectification to be used with the Slepian resonator such that the rectification results in a DC force component. The first experiment has already been achieved, the second experiment is the logical next step. If successful, the result would be quite revolutionary: a true space drive.

RESULTS: Experimental - POSITIVE (so far)


AIAA-2001-3655, J Derring - Paper Withdrawn


AIAA-2001-3656, H Brito

Using a theoretical formulation similar to Corum's, Brito presented an experimental paper on the use of PZT's (Piezo Electric Transducers) and coils in conjunction with a reaction mass to test mass deflection by means of coupling EM field momentum into mechanical momentum. The result would be a drive since mechanical momentum alone is not conserved. The claims were that mechanical momentum was generated in the closed system, and it was usable for thrust. However, the experiment was very noisy, and most of the audience had difficulty in accepting these claims based solely on the data presented. Therefore, I believe the results are still somewhat in question.

RESULTS: Experimental - WEAK POSITIVE (in question)


AIAA-2001-3657, GC Fralick (NASA)

Fralick presented NASA's investigation of NEMPS, the Nonlinear EM Propulsion System. The device was built with using a Schlicher Thrusting antenna, which is configured with coax that spreads into a magnetic field cone in the back, with a conductor down the middle. Mechanical thrust is created by the magnetic field gradient on the cone interacting (somehow) with the current produced field on the center conductor, creating field turbulence that is coupled into the cone as mechanical momentum. The device requires a sawtooth waveform input, and is allegedly produces .03N of thrust with only 112W of input. In the experiment, the power was about 1500W, and applied voltage spiked at about 1200A with 120V applied in the required sawtooth format. The measurement precision was .003N and no thrust was observed. The experiment was very low noise and therefore qualifies as a solid negative result.

RESULTS: Experimental - NEGATIVE


AIAA-2001-3658, H Froning Jr

Froning presented an experimental paper on a EM – gravitational interaction experiment. The theory used as a basis for the experiment is Terrance Barrett's. He states that EM interaction with gravity is not usually seem because ordinary EM obeys U1 symmetry (said to be Abelian) and gravitation obeys SU2 symmetry (said to be non-Abelian). So one must condition the EM radiation to the higher symmetry. One way to do this is to cause the EM waves to undergo "polarization rotation" (Vert to Circ to Horz to Circ, etc) and then look for a speed of light change. This is in the proposed stages. Another way to achieve SU2 is to create resonant field topologies, such as can be done with counterwound toroids, which was the experiment covered in this paper. Coils were tested with resonances from 90 to 118 MHz, at powers of up to 500 Watts. A gravitometer was placed in the center of and just above the toroid coils. Results were negative to very low deltas. Unfortunately, after the test it was discovered that the field strength of the toroids were at a null in the center, and peaked along the main body of the doughnut shape. Therefore the experiment should be repeated where the field strength is the highest to get a solid negative.

RESULTS: Experimental - NEGATIVE (so far)


AIAA-2001-3659, Serrano (Gravitec) - Paper Withdrawn


AIAA-2001-3660, Godin & Roschin (Russian Academy of Science)

Godin presented this experimental paper, based on results from 1993. This was by far the most controversial paper of the entire conference. The apparatus described in the experiment was a large rotating magnetic stator, surrounded by a collection of smaller external rotors of opposite polarity, all arranged such that they all rotate while spinning on a central axis. It appears to have been based on the so called "Searl Effect Generator". Results include reports of gravity reductions of 0% to 35% for rotation velocities of 0 to 550 RPM. However, the apparatus was mounted on an aluminum frame, which could have easily supported a counter-rotating induced current, as per Lenz's Law. However, the gravity reduction was just one of many reported anomalies, which included:

1) Runs on its own after being brought up to speed.

2) Begins to generate a net power after it is up to speed.

3) Drops the temperature in the test lab by 6 deg C to 8 deg C.

4) Strange "striped" magnetic field distribution (Bessel Function?) surrounding the device.

5) Blue & pink visible corona glow surrounding the device.

Unfortunately the device was destroyed (by unhappy financial backers?) over 6 years ago and so it is impossible to verify any of the results without recreating the device. They have been waiting to do just that for the last 6 years but for some reason have been unable to raise the funding so far. Their visit was sponsored by IRI (Integrity Research Institute?) and per Tom Valone of IRI, they have also recently visited a DOE site, and were faced with a skeptical audience there as well. Funding is still TBD.

RESULT: Experimental - WEAK POSITIVE (in question)


Wednesday, 7/11/01, BPP Session #3, Marc Millis Chair


AIAA-2001-3906, Harry Ringermacher

Co-author was Brice Cassenti of United Technologies. Ringermacher presented an experimental paper that looks for a time shift in a reference frame that undergoes a potential difference change. It is well known in GR (General Relativity) that a clock which undergoes a change in gravitational potential (e.g. up or down in altitude on Earth) will experience a time shift. This experiment is based on the prediction from certain UFT's (Unified Field Theories) that predict similar effects for electric potential difference changes. In particular, if one describes the coupling of EM to gravity with a torsion tensor, solutions allegedly exist where a delta t at a fixed x is a function of E potential alone. In this experiment, proton precession was used as the clock and was measured via NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, renamed MRI by former medical students). This device is sensitive to .01 ppm and a B field strength of 84.000 Gauss was used. 5000V was applied to the H atoms but no shift in precession rate was observed. The measurement was low noise and so this would indicate a solid negative result, at least for this interpretation of the UFT. However this interpretation seemed to imply that the torsion term resulted in a METRIC change to ST (Space Time). However we know that this is not always (if ever) true. If a magnet applies a force to another magnet, this is the torsion term at work, but we know that this will not affect the local metric because local non-magnetic mass remains unaffected, implying no impact on the local metric. So I think the interpretation of the EM torsion term as something that affects the metric is questionable, even if the theory is sound.

RESULTS: Experimental - NEGATIVE (for this interpretation)


AIAA-2001-3907, James Woodward (CSU Fullerton)

Woodward presented an experimental paper on how transient mass fluctuations may arise from a variation in Machian inertial reaction forces that arise in the dynamic solution of the GR equations. Prior solutions to GR equations have been static in the sense that they have not included all the dynamic terms that arising from variable fields and masses. Woodward's contribution has been to point out the existence of these additional dynamic terms. See the thesis of graduate student Tom Mahood for the latest detailed exposition of the theoretical side of this work. In this experiment, PZT (Piezo-Electric Transducer) stacks are used to vary mass position in conjunction with a properly phased varying E field which affects the Machian application of inertia to the mass. Timed properly, the idea is to have the mass weigh more as the mass is thrust back, and less as it is thrust forward, such that there exists a net thrusting force. The device is essentially "paddling" against the gravitational background, or exchanging momentum with the background gravitational fields of the universe, so that if the universe is considered the closed system, momentum is still conserved. Results of the experiments have been positive, but the experiment is noisy, with the effect on the same order as the noise, requiring filtering. The effect has also been smaller than originally expected, for reasons that are covered in the next paper.

RESULTS: Experimental - WEAK POSITIVE (noisy)


AIAA-2001-3908, J Cramer (UW)

Cramer presented a progress report on an experimental setup to independently confirm Woodward's theoretical solution. Cramer has predicted that Woodward's linear drive effect is smaller than originally calculated because the force that arises from the change in mass is counteracted, at least in part, by a force that is due to the mass changing in velocity. In equation form, F = dp/dt = m(dv/dt) + v(dm/dt). One must integrate over the entire vibration cycle to determine the net force. If these two terms cancel out over the whole cycle, then there is no net force. For this reason Cramer is looking to confirm a different term of Woodward’s dynamic solution, the d^2p/dt^2 term, than Woodward is looking for in the previous paper, the (dp/dt)^2 term. This former term should induce a phase shift in a harmonic oscillator with a variable mass. In Cramer's proposed experiment, the "Machian Guitar", a capacitive mass is suspended via actuated wires and a variable electric field (2KV, 400mA peak) is applied to the capacitor (9 nF). A laser is reflected off the suspended cap/mass to register oscillation frequency & phase. "Labview" is used to control the applied waveforms such that the capacitor is driven at exactly half the mechanical oscillator frequency. This is an AC version of the experiment that would not be useful as a drive but would confirm the existence of the higher order dynamic terms. The experiment was delayed by a change in staff and is still in work. Results are expected within the year.

RESULTS: Experimental - TBD (in work)


AIAA-2001-3909, M. Mojahedi & Kevin Malloy (UNM)

Malloy presented an experimental paper investigating the claims of superluminal but causal wave propagation. There has been a lot of recent confusion and misinformation on this topic. The purpose of this paper was to clear up the confusion and set the record straight. In this experiment, a microwave pulse is sent through a stack of 5 polycarbonate slabs that form a "1DPC", or a one-dimensional photonic crystal, which has high (50%) absorption and is very dispersive. It is known that under these conditions the latency of the group velocity of the main pulse is much less than it would otherwise be for empty space. For this experiment, it was 2.38(+/-.15) times less latency than empty space. The group velocity is then described (perhaps misleadingly) as being 2.38 x C. Does this mean that it was superluminal? No. For microwave pulse trains the main pulse is always preceded by both the Sommerfeld Precusor, which travels at the speed of light, and then the Brillion precursor, and then a latency period. Rather than using group velocity, if we instead use an operational definition that the speed of the signal is the "time of flight" of the signal from one point to another, then it becomes obvious that since the main pulse always arrives after the precursors, and the precursors travel at the speed of light, then the main pulse must always travel at less than the speed of light, no matter how short the latency period. The main pulse never passes the precursors, therefore it is always less than the speed of light. In the context of time of flight, the causal signal is therefore not superluminal.

RESULTS: Experimental - NEGATIVE ( < C )


AIAA-2001-3910, C Van Den Broeck (Penn State) - Paper not presented

This paper was provided to the conference but the author was not able to attend to present. Per J Cramer, who reviewed the paper, it is a description of a possible future technology to create negative mass, but "it won't be anything you'll be able to do in your lab anytime soon." Negative mass is a required component of ST (Space Time) warp drives such as the Morris-Thorne Wormhole and the Alcubierre Warp Drive, which now appear to be the only way to provide FTL (Faster Than Light) travel.

RESULTS: Theoretical - Applied Physics


AIAA-2001-3911, Martin Tajmar & C. de Matos

Tajmar began the presentation of this theoretical paper by outlining how the GR equations may be linearized, as per Forward, such that GR may be split into "Gravitoelectric" field effects such as are seen in Newtonian gravity, and "Gravitomagnetic" field effects, such as are seen in the Lense-Thirring effect and in frame dragging. Tajmar derived from this analogy to EM certain constants, gravitational permittivity and permeability, and asking the question "What is the charge to mass coupling?", proceeded to create scaling constants such that mass is to charge as gravity permittivity is to electric permittivity, and used these expressions via substitution to derive coupling. This seemed a leap on at least two scores: (1) as is pointed out in a later paper, using the linearized weak field limit severely constrains the utility of the equations, so looking for small effects and couplings may be completely invalid with these expressions, and (2) there is no guarantee that this analogy between EM and Gravity equations may be used to create coupling constants that are valid in any physical sense. Indeed, previous papers seem to indicate that EM participates in a largely non-metric way, while the gravitation is clearly metric. de Matos presented the balance of the paper, in which he calculated an example of how the predicted coupling could, for instance, interfere with the free fall of a charged cylinder. Although the predicted coupling was quite small it should be possible to devise a test to easily refute this analogy, at least in principle.

RESULTS: Theoretical - Fundamental


AIAA-2001-3913, Jeff Cameron

Cameron presented a paper on a proposed Asymmetrical Gravity Wave Propulsion System that has been simulated using computer simulation but has not yet been experimentally verified. The proposed concept uses Weber resonant vibrators as gravity wave radiators, and magnifies the effect by proposing an array of these radiator cells, such that they are phased to constructively interfere with each other to form a tighter gravity wave beam. While he proposed a linear array I see no reason why a 2D array could not be used to further enhance directivity. Aside from the reaction force to the propagation of the gravity wave, which has better per unit area force than a solar sail, there is also the impact of the gravity wave on other masses to be considered. Would pointing the gravity beam at a planet help to "pull" the space vehicle towards that planet? Alternatively, if the reaction mass where attached to a fixed object, would the gravity beam be useful as a "tractor beam" if pointed directly at a non-fixed object? The answers to these questions may be non-intuitive and bear further investigation.

RESULTS: Theoretical - Applied Physics


AIAAA-2001-3912, Robin Tucker (Lancaster University)

Saving the best for last, Tucker got off to a slow start by spending too much time on rationale, such as the rocket equation and the shortcomings of tether systems, before finally coming around to presenting the state of his very interesting UFT research at Lancaster in the UK. The work is sponsored by British Aerospace via the Greenglow Programme. The concept of Gravito Electro Magnetism was briefly touched upon, i.e. the analogy between GR and Maxwell's equations, only to point out that the time dependence of these equations is restricted by the linearization process and therefore they should be used for quasi-static cases only, which are not typically the cases of interest for interaction. Focusing then on their UFT work, Tucker discussed the use of autoparallels as a replacement to geodesics where, in addition to the ST metric, there are also allowances for torsion terms, which may be used for EM, and scalar terms, which may be predicted by ZPF theory. Since these are non-metric terms, they do not cause the "universe to curl up" with infinite curvature. His description sounded similar to the Teleparallels of Vargas & Torr, yet another extension of Cartan's work. How can it be determined which UFT is right? Tucker suggested the use of "Cosserat Detectors" in orbit to look for unusual modes of long wave gravity waves that are not predicted by "metric only" versions of UFTs. The question was also raised: is G a universal coupling, or does it vary? An interesting discussion of possible UFT formulations, but unfortunately scant on detail due to a lack of time.

RESULTS: Theoretical - Fundamental


My sincere thanks to all the researchers, authors, and speakers that have had the guts to participate in this field to date. Rare is the field, so high in self sacrifice, so frightful in scope, so grand in future return.