we at IRI are dedicated to educating the public on emerging energy,
propulsion and bioenergy developments, the new trend in journals
these days is open access publishing, which educates the
public at no cost to them. This month I received two Call for Papers
which can include fundamental energy breakthrough publications. One
is from http://gsjournal.net/ General
Science Journal which is a "non-peer-reviewed
electronic journal" with all scientific opinions welcome,
"particularly in physics" and NO cost to the authors, with
editors all over the world. The second is from Springer publishers
who sponsor the growing SpringerOpen portfolio
of over 100 peer-reviewed
open access journals. Usually, SpringerOpen journals request
processing charge (APC) for each manuscript accepted
after peer review. The APC is essential to ensure that the journal
remains free of charge for readers everywhere. The publication
costs for Micro and Nano Systems Letters are
covered by The Society of Micro and Nano Systems, so
authors do not need to pay an article-processing
charge. If you are interested in these benefits, submit your
next manuscript to Micro and Nano Systems Letters online.
month we are once again ahead of the rest of the media in reporting
breakthrough energy discoveries which deserves to make the news
everywhere. How about throwing recycled plastic into your gas tank?
Our first story does just that, with the help of an
"end-of-life" plastic waste processing facility Cynar (http://www.cynarplc.com/),
to power a single engine Cessna with the liquid fuel.
second story coincides with the release of the new Draft
National Climate Assessment (http://ncadac.globalchange.gov/ ) where you can read
the draft online including a short Executive
Summary and submit comments before April 12, 2013.
The experts have finally targeted the correct temperature rise (about
7 degrees F +/- 3 degrees F) expected by 2050 - 2100 but
underestimate the sea level rise (about 2.5 feet +/- 3.5 foot
uncertainty) that can be anticipated (see p. 20-21 of the Executive
Summary). Watch my YouTube "Climate Change
Consequences" video (link below) for a detailed summary of
the impeccable facts from 400,000 years of climate history (thanks to
Dr. Jim Hansen) to see and understand where we are already headed,
unless we successfully lower the earth's CO2 level back
to a maximum of 300 ppm. New Scientist explained this on
Nov. 3, 2012 by referring to "an astonishingly close
correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and
temperature" (p. 33). This is why IRI is so committed
to future energy breakthroughs which we hope the public will support,
for everyone's benefit worldwide, to be followed by the best
billion-ton carbon sequestration that money can buy.
third story motivates us with economic details in order to consider
switching to electric vehicles if we intend to use them frequently,
so the cost will be compensated by the savings of using electricity
fourth story has an interesting assessment by the federal Energy
Information Administration related to electricity generation energy
costs for the past ten years with wind power finally reaching the 10
GWh range, surpassing biomass, solar and geothermal. I also just read
that wind has now passed coal in the megawatt per cost assessment.
there is great hope for photovoltaic solar to catch up with an
amazing 50% efficiency that is now reachable by the Solar Junction
Throw out your old 10% efficient PV panels and make way for 5 times
the output for the same intermittent sunshine, "with better
performance in the infrared". We are now therefore seeing output
even from ambient heat since that is what creates infrared radiation
terrestrially. Morocco is converting their street lights to this free
energy too. And don't forget about our valuable offer for the Breakthrough Developments in
Energy and Propulsion DVD to readers of this eNews.
Valone, PhD, PE.
LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AND GET
10% OFF ANY ITEM IN OUR CATALOG!
1) Recycled Plastic Converted to Fuel
By Adam Williams February 26, 2013 Gizmag.
Jeremy Rowsell is set to fly solo from Sydney to London in a Cessna
182 aircraft powered solely by diesel derived from
"end-of-life" plastic (ELP) waste. If all goes to plan, the
endeavor will set a new record time for the journey in a
single-engine piston plane, and represent a compelling
argument for the viability of ELP as a fuel source.
The project, dubbed "On Wings of Waste," was
conceived following longtime pilot Rowsell's growing concern about
the role that the aviation industry plays in harming the environment,
in addition to the larger problem of pollution in general. To bring
attention to the practicability of recycled plastic as a fuel source,
Rowsell teamed up with Cynar PLC, an Irish company that
converts ELP into synthetic diesel.
with Cynar CEO Michael Murray via telephone, who explained that the
company converts ELP typically destined for landfills into useful
diesel. The conversion involves pyrolysis, which is the process of
thermal degradation of a material in the absence of oxygen - so
heating, but no burning, takes place.
ELP is broken
down into gases by the pyrolysis process, then put through a
specially-designed condenser system in order to produce a mixture
equivalent to petroleum distillates. This is then further treated to
produce liquid fuel, while leftover gases are diverted back into the
furnaces which heat the plastics. Interestingly, the diesel produced
by this method is actually claimed more efficient and lower in sulfur
than generic diesel.
The only waste
material left over from the ELP-to-diesel conversion process is
roughly five percent char, which can also be put to use in the
building industry for concrete and tile manufacturing.
plant can produce up to 19,000 liters (around 5,000 US gallons) of
fuel from 20 tons of ELP per day. For the roughly 4,000 liters (1,000
US gallons) of fuel that Rowsell's flight will consume, approximately
five tons of waste plastic will be recycled.
is being incorporated into several worldwide waste recycling firms,
enabling such companies to convert ELP into diesel themselves. In
addition, Cynar has penned an agreement with the UK's Loughborough
University to in a bid to further advance research on the subject.
diesel produced by Cynar's recycling process has been used many times
in vehicles, Rowsell's flight will be the first time it has been used
to power an airborne journey.
The pilot will
follow in the footsteps of aviation pioneers such as Charles
Kingsford-Smith and Bert Hinkler. He'll be flying for stretches of up
to 13 hours at a time, usually at around 5,000 feet (1,500 meters),
while crossing massive swathes of land and sea, for a total of around
12,000 nautical miles (22,000 km).
voyage is scheduled to take place this coming July.
Sources: At Altitude, Cynar PLC via The Telegraph
End of Life Plastic into Liquid Fuels
established to focus on finding solutions to waste problems. It was
apparent then, and remains today, that End of Life Plastic is the
waste industry's biggest issue. The new Cynar Technology is a unique
and profitable process that is pertinent to the largest issue facing
all markets and recyclers today, positive disposal of end of life
("Cynar") is developing and has patent applied for a
technology which converts a wide range of ELP into liquid fuels,
mainly diesel which Cynar calls - End of Life Plastic to Diesel
(ELPD). This unique Cynar Technology converts mixed Waste Plastics
into synthetic fuels that are cleaner, low in sulphur and in the case
of the diesel, a higher cetane than generic diesel fuel. The key
elements of the Technology involve pyrolysis and distillation.
full scale ELPD plant has received all required permitting and
licensing and is operating in Ireland. The second plant has
successfully been awarded planning permission in the UK with
SITA/Suez Environment and is proceeding to plan.
successfully agreed an exclusive contract with SITA/Suez for a total
of 10 plants. This contract is valued at over 70m and is being
followed by similar agreements with other reputable recyclers.
Technology is a truly sustainable waste solution, diverting End of
Life Plastic from landfill, utilising the embodied energy content of
plastics and producing a highly usable commodity. Cynar are actively
seeking partners with experience in the waste and fuel industries to
work together in rapidly commercialising this unique Technology.
Cynar Click Here
IRI is giving away a 15-minute
video tutorial posted online at YouTube. We encourage everyone to
view it and get the complete facts on our expected climate future as
well as the recommended recourse for solving the problem. - TV,
Climate Change Consequences
2013 * Vol 14. No 2, World Future Society, www.wfs.org
could actually benefit most of the Arctic's animal wildlife,
according to ecologists from Umea University in Sweden. Writing in
the peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE,they explain that, as
the tundra retreats and the temperate climate zones expand, 43 out of
61 species studied will widen and modify their own ranges, migrating
to new, more hospitable habitats.
cold-weather species, such as the Arctic fox and lemming, may have
greater difficulty at this, but the scientists do not foresee any
animals going extinct.
glaciers in other parts of the world appear less likely to survive.
Glacial melt in South America's Andes region has been increasing
since the 1970s, according to an article in The Cryosphere, an
open-access journal produced by the European Geosciences Union. The
authors' data indicates that the melting exceeds any that the region
has experienced within the last 300 years.
altitudes below 5,400 meters have lost 1.35 meters of ice per year
since the late 1970s and will probably completely disappear within
the coming decades. The researchers pin the historic melting on
regional climate, which has warmed by 0.15°C per decade from 1950
through 1994. This melting jeopardizes the water supplies of tens of
thousands of the region's human inhabitants, who depend on the
glaciers for water for farming, domestic use, and hydropower.
Climate Change Will Favour Non-Specialist Mammals in the
(Sub)Arctics" by Anouschka R. Hof, Roland Jansson, and Christer
Nilsson, PLoS ONE 7(12): e52574. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052574.
state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a multi-century perspective
on glacier evolution and climate change" by A. Rabatel et al.,
The Cryosphere, 7, 81-102, 2013
Money by Using Electric Vehicles
Daily February 2013
High battery costs still prevent many people from buying an
electric vehicle. Is it possible to save money by using an electric
vehicle instead of a conventional reference car? This question is
studied by the companies of Michelin and Siemens in cooperation with
research partners at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI. In
January 2013, the consortium was promised funding by the Federal
Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban Development (BMVBS) under
the Baden-Württemberg LivingLab BWe mobil showcase project.
Electric Vehicles used by Siemens and Michelin.
electric mobility is to be successful in Europe, it has to be
economically efficient. We are looking for applications in which
electric vehicles are cheaper than a reference car with a combustion
engine," says Dr. Olaf Wollersheim, head of the RheinMobil
showcase project at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This is
where the companies of Michelin and Siemens come in. Their staff
members commute frequently between the German and French facilities. So
far, conventional vehicles have been used for these trips. However,
an electric vehicle may be cheaper, as every kilometer driven
electrically costs less than driving on gasoline or diesel fuel.
Wollersheim points out that the reason is the much higher efficiency
of the electric drive train. "If the vehicle is used often,
costs can be reduced considerably and the high purchasing price is
a few weeks from now, first electric vehicles will be used by the
staff commuting from Alsace to the Michelin factory in Karlsruhe. At
the same time, Siemens staff members will use an electric instead of
a gasoline-based vehicle for their trips between the factories in
Karlsruhe and Haguenau, France. In both cases, utilization of the
vehicles is planned to be increased, such that the electric vehicle
will be cheaper than the reference car with a combustion engine at
the end of the project. This concept also convinced the federal
government. The project scheduled for a duration of three years and
having a volume of nearly two million euros will be funded by the
BMVBF and the project partners at a ratio of 50 : 50.
does not only develop and sell tires, but is also committed to viable
mobility. This is one of the company's principles outlined in the
"Performance and Responsibility" Charter. The RheinMobil
project fits perfectly to our company culture, as we can combine our
values of 'respect for people' and 'promoting innovation',"
explains Christian Metzger, the Karlsruhe plant manager of Michelin.
"If electric mobility is to have a future, we have to bring
electric vehicles onto the roads and make them visible," Metzger
participating in the project, Siemens does not only want to
contribute to environmental protection, we also want to enhance the
acceptance of electric mobility among our staff members. For business
trips to our factory at Haguenau, Alsace, which is located 70 km
away, they can test the electric vehicle in practice,"
Hans-Georg Kumpfmüller, spokesman of the Karlsruhe Siemens plant
reach the ambitious project objectives, smart operation strategies
for the vehicles, charging stations at the right places, and efforts
to convince the staff members of the companies are required.
Fraunhofer ISI and KIT have already studied user expectations and
commercialization obstacles. They know the factors that prevent
people from using electric vehicles, such as high costs, small
ranges, and limited availability of charging infrastructure.
is where we come in," says Max Nastold, managing director of the
company e-MotionLine. This company has just
been established by KIT graduates and now received the first order to
supply vehicles for the RheinMobil project. "We take care of the
selection of economically most efficient vehicles, coordinate the
charging infrastructure, and train the users in using this new
technology." Max Nastold is convinced that this concept can also
be used to open up other economically efficient applications. As
regards the use of the charging infrastructure on both sides of the
German-French border, the RheinMobil partners cooperate closely with
the CROss-border Mobility for EVs (CROME) project (http://crome.forschung.kit.edu)
that is funded by several German and French ministries.
RheinMobil project is one of about 40 projects in the
Baden-Württemberg "LivingLab BWe mobil" electric mobility
showcase. It is funded with about 2 million euros by the Federal
Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban Development (BMVBF) under
the showcase program of the federal government. In April 2012, the
federal government selected four regions in Germany as "electric
mobility showcases." In these regions, research and development
of alternative drive trains are funded according to the decision made
by German parliament. For the showcase project, the federation will
provide funds in the total amount of EUR 180 million. In large-scale
regional demonstration and pilot projects, electric mobility will be
tested at the interface of energy system, vehicle, and traffic
system. Further information can be found atwww.schaufenster-elektromobilitaet.org.
BWe mobil" Electric Mobility Showcase In the Baden-Württemberg
"LivingLab BWe mobil" showcase, more than 100 partners from
industry, science, and public institutions are studying electric
mobility in practice. The projects concentrate on the region of
Stuttgart and the city of Karlsruhe and ensure high international
visibility. "LivingLab BWe mobil" stands for a systematic
approach based on coordinated projects for everybody to experience
electric mobility from the electric bike to the electric car to the
electric van to plug-in shuttle buses. The projects address aspects
of intermodality, fleets, commercial transport, infrastructure and
energy, urban and traffic planning, vehicle technology, communication,
and participation as well as training and qualification.
"LivingLab BWe mobil" is coordinated by the State Agency
for Electric Mobility and Fuel Cell Technology e-mobil
BW GmbH and the Stuttgart Regional Economic Development Corporation
the Radio Even in an Electric Vehicle (Apr.
4, 2012) - To enable radio reception in electric
vehicles, manufacturers must install filters and insulate cables,
since electrical signals will otherwise interfere with music and
speech transmissions. Now, ... > read more
of Electric Vehicle Batteries (Sep.
11, 2011) - Costs of manufacture of batteries and power
trains of electric vehicles can be halved by 2018, if the gaps in the
innovation chain can be closed. For reaching this objective,
scientists develop ... > read more
Car Convenience Is Worth (May
19, 2011) - A U.S. nationwide survey asked consumers what
changes to the common complaints of charging time and limited range
are worth. For longer range, they'd pay $35-$75/mile. For faster
charging, ... > read more
Mechanism for Electric Vehicle Charging (May
8, 2011) - Researchers have designed a new pricing
mechanism that could change the way in which electric vehicles are
charged. It is based on an online auction protocol that makes it
possible to charge electric ... > read more
4) Electricity Data Browser Shows Changes in
the Fuel Mix
LaMonica MIT Technology Review. February 13, 2013
Even people with a passing interest in energy know there
have been major changes in the U.S. over the past few years,
including the surge in domestic oil and natural gas drilling and a
jump in renewable energy.
How do these
broader trends play out in electricity generation in the U.S.? The
Energy Information Administration last week released its electricity data
browser, which lets you view how fuels for electricity
generation have shifted over the past decade.
in it for Web developers as well, as this information is available
from an API. It's part of the Department of Energy's efforts to
publish more publicly available information to spur innovation and
the creation of applications using energy data. (See, Inventing the
First off, what's the demand for electricity like? When
you look at net generation data for electric utilities (this excludes
independent power producers and co-gen facilities), you see a clear
trend: flat to negative load growth. If you look at the "all
fuels" red line below, you can see a dip in 2009 from the
recession, which is to be expected. The number of electric gadgets
U.S. homes have is growing, but overall usage is fairly steady,
likely in part due to more efficient lighting and large appliances.
This slow or no growth environment means that the days
of building a giant nuclear plant in the U.S., for example, to meet
rapid growth appear to be in the past. It also means a rise in one
fuel source use corresponds to a drop in another.
The rush of natural gas, due to fracking shale rock in
the U.S., has been the biggest energy story of the past few years and
the effects are quite clear in this next chart below. The annual
data, indexed to 2001, show how much each fuel (minus pumped hydro
and the "other" category) has contributed over time.
We see natural gas (the yellow line) shoot up over the
past few years and coal going down (the red line)-a visual
demonstration of utilities opting for cheap and cleaner-burning
natural gas over coal.
The last graph showed that nuclear and hydropower have
contributed roughly the same amount to overall electricity generation
over the past decade. But what about the upward "other
renewables" line? That includes biomass, or burning wood for
power generation, along with geothermal, wind, and solar.
This next chart below shows just much wind has grown
over the past five years in the U.S. It displays monthly data, which
reflects how wind output varies substantially with the time of the
year, unlike nuclear or fossil plants which can run steadily. The
contribution of biomass and geothermal are fairly consistent over the
years, while solar has started to creep up since the mid-2000s. (Note
this is for megawatt-hours of energy produced, not the power capacity
of wind and solar installations.)
To put the growth of wind and solar in perspective, look
at this next chart below. The top brown line is all generation for
electric utilities compared to hydropower and other renewables. As
you can see, non-hydropower renewables (the green line at the borrom)
still remain a tiny portion of the overall generating mix despite
rapid growth over the past few years.
back to table of contents
Powerful PV's Approach 50% Efficiency
STEVENSON / DECEMBER 2012. IEEE
Solar: Solar Junction's photovoltaic cell breaks efficiency records.
Valley start-up Solar Junction has raised the bar
for solar efficiency to 44 percent, and even higher values are in the
cards: The company has a road map for reaching 50 percent efficency
break the efficiency record, Solar Junction built a cell with three
regions, known as junctions, that are stacked on top of one another;
each absorbs a different spectral region of the sun's rays. The
result is a device that delivers far more energy than conventional
cells do. Ordinary photovoltaics have just a single junction. Each
junction in the triple-junction cell operates at
a different output voltage, and they are connected in series, so the
total power produced gets a boost.
a triple junction is not a first, but the type of material that Solar
Junction uses for the bottom cell, known as dilute nitride, is new.
In this case, the material is made up of gallium indium arsenide
antimonide with a splash in nitrogen.
nitrides have a checkered history. In the middle of the last decade,
they were the key ingredient in a new generation of
telecom-wavelength lasers that failed to win significant sales.
"It wasn't for yield or lack of performance. It was because the
telecom industry crashed, and that choked off any new products,"
explains Homan Yuen, Solar Junction's vice president of research and
triple-junction cells, dilute nitrides are destined to make a big
impact because they offer unprecedented versatility, says Yuen. This
material's composition can be tuned to optimize the power that the
cell harnesses from the sun's infrared energy. But what's really
important is that engineers can make those tweaks while independently
controlling the spacing of the atoms in the dilute nitride's crystal.
Even tiny mismatches between this nitride's crystal lattice and that
of the layers below and above can crush efficiency.
The 44 percent
figure is remarkable on its own, but what's going to keep Solar
Junction's new cell from just being another one for the record books
is that the process can be extended to produce four-, five-, or even
six-junction cells. This will increase the output voltage of
photovoltaics and ultimately let them yield more power (the product
of current and voltage)
The upshot of
all this optimization is that the company will be able to boost
efficiency past the coveted 50 percent mark, according to Solar
Junction engineers, who've already mapped out a path to that goal.
They will begin by inserting a bottom germanium junction to form a
four-junction cell with better performance in the infrared. Further
gains will then result from replacing the single dilute nitride layer
with a pair of dilute nitride layers, before a sixth junction is added
at the top of the structure, which will improve the cell's
cells are very expensive to produce because their structure is formed
using painfully slow deposition techniques on small, costly
substrates. So to make the photovoltaic systems that use them
cost-competitive with those based on silicon, you need mirrors and
lenses to focus sunlight, concentrating it by a factor of several
hundred onto cells no bigger than a fingernail.
solar not only trims costs, it also boosts cell efficiency, because
it increases the output voltages at each junction. In Solar
Junction's case, the record-breaking efficiency resulted from
concentrating sunlight by a factor of 947 on a cell from a
photovoltaic systems based on this technology must swivel and tilt
from dawn to dusk to ensure that sunlight always hits an array of
cells head-on. Despite that complexity, such PV systems are quickly
becoming more popular in dry, sunny climes. According to IMS Research, in Wellingborough,
England, 90 megawatts will be deployed in 2012, rising to 1.2
gigawatts by 2016. This rapid growth is spurred by the low cost of
the energy that these systems generate over their lifetime. The
multijunction PV systems can undercut silicon cells by 12 percent in
some locations, and at the efficiencies Solar Junction is now seeing,
this gap could widen.
one of the main contributors to the total system costs," explains
Jemma Davies of IMS. "By increasing efficiency and
concentration, the output per cell is increased, and the cost per
STREETLIGHTING IN MOROCCO
IEEE, BILL SWEET /
FRI, FEBRUARY 22, 2013
month, right after taking a camel ride into the Sahara Desert to
sleep under the stars, on the far outer fringes of what we take to be
civilization, I wasn't expecting to see a striking example of high
tech. But see it I did, atop street light poles in the Moroccan
village of Lgarfe: A small photovoltaic panel linked to what was
obviously a battery box, so that energy from light stored during the
day could be used to illuminate streets at night.
took me a while to track down the manufacturer named on the poles,
and to distinguish it from other manufacturers with very similar
names, because, as it turned out, the maker of the PV streetlight
system is a native Moroccan startup, not the subsidiary of some large
global player. That is, Ecolite.ma is a private, independent Moroccan
company, where "We are developing and manufacturing our products
in Morocco," as a company representative reported in an e-mail.
"We are helped by big European firms such as Philips, Solar
World, [etc.], who provide us by equipments and devices," he
continued, with evident pride. "[But] our products are certified
made in Morocco."
to the company's website each lamp is a 33 Watt LED, capable of
producing 3000 lumens and with an operating lifetime of 50,000 hours;
the pole-mounted energy storage system is a 12 Volt, 75 amp-hour
battery; enough energy
can be stored during the day to light streets for two nights, with a
50 percent discharge
quick Google search reveals that Ecolite.ma is not the only
company out there with a battery-equipped solar streetlighting system.
But it is the first one I have ever noticed. How much potential is
there for such systems? could Ecolite.ma some day be a household word
in, say, Arizona or Andalusia? Well, remember this: Daytime
temperatures on the edge of the Sahara can exceed 55 degrees Celsius
(135 degrees F). It is not your usual environment.
back to table of contents
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- Scott Kelsey, Missouri State, explaining Rejuvamatrix, Pulsed EMF
therapy to increase the length of DNA telomeres, which directly
affect our lifespan.
- Max Formitchev-Zamilov, Penn State, discussing Cavitation Induced
Fusion, that will soon provide power generation and heat
- Christopher Provaditis, from Greece, explaining Inertial
Propulsion and who teamed up recently with Boeing for their space
- PJ Piper of QM Power, discussing the motor invented by
Charles Flynn, with a revolutionary parallel path that gives
double and triple efficiency.
- Dr Thorsten Ludwig from Germany (GASE) discussing
the mysterious Hans Coler motor that WWII British Intelligence